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Linux 4.10 Release – Main Changes, ARM & MIPS Architectures

February 20th, 2017 3 comments

Linus Torvalds has just released Linux 4.10:

So there it is, the final 4.10 release. It’s been quiet since rc8, but we did end up fixing several small issues, so the extra week was all good.

On the whole, 4.10 didn’t end up as small as it initially looked. After the huge release that was 4.9, I expected things to be pretty quiet, but it ended up very much a fairly average release by modern kernel standards. So we have about 13,000 commits (not counting merges – that would be another 1200+ commits if you count those). The work is all over, obviously – the shortlog below is just the changes in the last week, since rc8.

Go out and verify that it’s all good, and I’ll obviously start pulling stuff for 4.11 on Monday. Linus

Linux 4.9 added Greybus staging support, improved security thanks to virtually mapped kernel stacks, and memory protection keys, included various file systems improvements, and many more changes.

Some newsworthy changes for Linux 4.10 include:

  • Virtual GPU support – Intel GVT-g for KVM (KVMGT) is a full GPU virtualization solution with mediated pass-through, starting from 4th generation Intel Core processors with Intel Graphics. Unlike direct pass-through alternatives, the mediated device framework allows KVMGT to offer a complete virtualized GPU with full GPU features to each one of the virtualized guests, with part of performance critical resources directly assigned, while still having performance close to native.
  • New ‘perf c2c’ tool, for cacheline contention analysis – perf c2c (for “cache to cache”) is a new tool designed to analyse and track down performance problems caused by false sharing on NUMA systems. The tool is based on x86’s load latency and precise store facility events provided by Intel CPUs. Visit C2C – False Sharing Detection in Linux Perf for more details about the tool.
  • Improved writeback management – Linux 4.10 release adds a mechanism that throttles back buffered writeback, which makes more difficult for heavy writers to monopolize the I/O requests queue, and thus provides a smoother experience in Linux desktops and shells than what people was used to. The algorithm for when to throttle can monitor the latencies of requests, and shrinks or grows the request queue depth accordingly, which means that it’s auto-tunable, and generally, a user would not have to touch the settings. Read Toward less-annoying background writeback for more details about this improvement.
  • FAILFAST support –  This release also adds “failfast” support. RAID disk with failed IOs are marked as broken quickly, and avoided in the future, which can improve latency.
  • Faster Initial WiFi Connection – Linux 4.10 adds support for using drivers with Fast Initial Link Setup as defined in IEEE 802.11ai. It enables a wireless LAN client to achieve a secure link setup within 100ms. This release covers only the FILS authentication/association functionality from IEEE 802.11ai, i.e., the other changes like scanning optimizations are not included.

Some notable ARM architecture improvements and new features:

  • Allwinner:
    • Allwinner A23 – Audio codec driver
    • Allwinner A31/A31s – Display Driver (first pipeline), audio codec support
    • Allwinner A64 – clock driver
    • Allwinner A80 – External SDIO WiFi
    • Allwinner H3 – Audio codec driver, SPI
    • New boards support: NextThingCo CHIP Pro, Pine A64, NanoPi M1
  • Rockchip:
    • Initial support for Rockchip PX5 & PX3 automotive platforms
    • Added Rockchip RK1108 evaluation board
    • Added support for Rikomagic MK808 Android TV stick based on Rockchip RK3066
    • Update Rockchip PCI driver to support for max-link-speed
    • Rockchip rk3399,rk3066 PLL clock optimizations
  • Amlogic
    • Support for the pre-release “SCPI” firmware protocol shipped by Amlogic in their GXBB SoC
    • Initial support for Amlogic S905D, and S912 (GXM) SoCs
    • Added support for Nexbox A1 and A95X Android TV boxes
    • Cleanup for the Amlogic Meson PWM driver
    • New Amlogic Meson Graphic Controller GXBB (S905)/GXL (S905X/S905D)/GXM (S912) SoCs (meson)
    • Resets for 2nd USB PHY
    • Initial support for the SD/eMMC controller in the Amlogic S905/GX* family of SoCs
    • Updated DTS to enable support for USB, I2C, SPI, maibox/MHU, PWM, ethernet MAC & PHY, secure monitor, IR, and watchdog.
  • Samsung
    • Device Tree for Samsung Exynos5433 mobile phone platform, including an (almost) fully supported phone reference board
    • Added support for TOPEET itop/elite board based on exynos4412
    • DeviceTree  updates:
      • Add Performance Monitor Unit to Exynos7.
      • Add MFC, JPEG and Gscaler to Exynos5433 based TM2 board.
      • Cleanups and fixes for recently added TM2 and TM2E boards.
      • Enable ADC on Odroid boards
      • Remove unused Exynos4415 DTSI
  • Qualcomm
    • Add support for Qualcomm MSM8992 (Snapdragon 808) and MSM8994 (Snapdragon 810) mobile phone SoCs
    • Added support for Huawei Nexus 6P (Angler) and LG Nexus 5X (Bullhead) smartphones
    • Support for Qualcomm MDM9615 LTE baseband
    • Support for WP8548 MangOH Open Hardware platform for IOT, based on Qualcomm MDM9615
    • Other device tree changes:
      • Added SDHC xo clk and 1.8V DDR support
      • Add EBI2 support to MSM8660
      • Add SMSC ethernet support to APQ8060
      • Add support for display, pstore, iommu, and hdmi to APQ8064
      • Add SDHCI node to MSM8974 Hammerhead
      • Add Hexagon SMD/PIL nodes
      • Add DB820c PMIC pins
      • Fixup APQ8016 voltage ranges
      • Add various MSM8996 nodes to support SMD/SMEM/SMP2P
  • Mediatek
    • Added clock for Mediatek MT2701 SoCs
    • New Mediatek drivers: mtk-mdp and mtk-vcodec (VP8/VP9/H.264) for MT8173
    • Updated the Mediatek IOMMU driver to use the new struct device->iommu_fwspec member
  • Other new ARM hardware platforms and SoCs:
    • Hisilicon – Hip07 server platform and D05 board
    • NXP – LS1046A Communication processor, i.MX 6ULL SoC, UDOO Neo board, Boundary Devices Nitrogen6_SOM2 (i.MX6), Engicam i.CoreM6, Grinn i.MX6UL liteSOM/liteBoard,  Toradex Colibri iMX6 module
    • Nvidia – Early support for the Nvidia Tegra Tegra186 SoC, NVIDIA P2771 board, and NVIDIA P3310 processor module
    • Marvell – Globalscale Marvell ESPRESSOBin community board based on Armada 3700, Turris Omnia open source hardware router based on Armada 385
    • Renesas “R-Car Starter Kit Pro” (M3ULCB) low-cost automotive board, Renesas RZ/G (r8a7743 and r8a7745) application processors
    • Oxford semiconductor (now Broadcom) OX820 SoC for NAS devices, Cloud Engines PogoPlug v3 based on OX820
    • Broadcom – Various wireless devices: Netgear R8500 router, Tenda AC9 router, TP-LINK Archer C9 V1, Luxul XAP-1510 Access point
    • STMicro  – stm32f746 Cortex-M7 based microcontroller
    • Texas Instruments – DRA71x automotive processors, AM571x-IDK industrial board based on TI AM5718
    • Altera – Macnica Sodia development platform for Altera socfpga (Cyclone V)
    • Xilinx – MicroZed board based on Xilinx Zynq FPGA platforms

That’s a long list of changes and new boards and devices… Linux 4.10 only brings few MIPS changes however:

  • KVM fixes: fix host kernel crashes when receiving a signal with 64-bit userspace,  flush instruction cache on all vcpus after generating entry code (both for stable)
  • uprobes: Fix uprobes on MIPS, allow for a cache flush after ixol breakpoint creation
  • RTC updates:  Remove obsolete code and probe the jz4740-rtc driver from devicetree for jz4740, qi_lb60
  • microblaze/irqchip: Moved intc driver to irqchip. The Xilinx AXI Interrupt Controller IP block is used by the MIPS based xilfpga platform and a few PowerPC based platforms.
  • crypto: poly1305 – Use unaligned access where required, which speeds up performance on small MIPS routers.
  • MIPS: Wire up new pkey_{mprotect,alloc,free} syscalls

You can also read Linux 4.10 changelog with comments only, generated using git log v4.9..v4.10 --stat, in order to get a full list of changes. Alternatively, you could also read Linux 4.9 changelog on kernelnewbies.org.

EU funded AXIOM Board is Powered by Xilinx Zynq UltraScale+ FPGA + ARM SoC

February 17th, 2017 9 comments

Back in 2015, Xilinx unveiled Zynq Ultrascale+ MPSoC combining ARM Cortex A53 & Cortex R5 cores, a Mali-400MP2 GPU, and UltraScale FPGA, and the company recently launched ZCU102 Evaluation Kit based on the SoC, which sells for just under $3,000. But if you are based in the European Union, you’ll be glad to learn about 4 millions Euros of your taxes have been spent to design a board based on the same MPSoC family as part of the AXIOM project, which was developed in collaboration with European universities and companies with the “aim of researching new software/hardware architectures for Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) to meet the expectations” in terms of computational power, energy efficiency, scalability through modularity, easy programmability, and leverage of the best existing standards at minimal costs.

AXIOM (Agile, eXtensible, fast I/O Module) board’s key specifications:

  • SoC – Xilinx Zynq Ultrascale+ ZU9EG MPSoC with four ARM Cortex A53 cores @ 1.2GHz, two Cortex R5 “real-time” cores @ 500MHz, a Mali-400MP GPU @ 600 MHz, 600K System Logic Cells;
  • System Memory – 32 GB of swappable SO-DIMM RAM  (up to 32GB) for the Processing System, plus a soldered 1 GB Programmable Logic.
  • Storage – 8 GB eMMC flash (PCN layout supports up to 32GB), and a micro SD card reader.
  • Display – miniDP connector, single channel 24-bit LVDS interface, touch panel connector
  • Connectivity – Gigabit Ethernet port (RJ45)
  • USB – 4x USB Type C ports, 2x USB Type A ports
  • Expansion
    • Arduino UNO headers
    • 12x GTH transceivers @ 12.5 Gbps  (8 on USB Type C connectors + 4 on HS connector)

There’s also mention of an Axiom Link interface that would allow to interconnect multiple AXIOM boards in order to arrange small clusters.

Since it’s a public project I would have expected it to be open source. While there are some deliverables available for download, they appear to be outdated with “the technical specification of AXIOM board” PDF mentioning only AXIOM-15 and AXIOM-35 boards based on the previous Xilinx Zynq-7000 series SoCs. We can also find links to a Wiki, as well as git and svn repository, but all those are in a private area that requires a login, and as far as I could tell, it’s not possible to register. So maybe the EU commission wants to protect its investment, or we just need to be a little more patient. [Update: This Download page  seems to have more public info available]

Click to Enlarge

The AXIOM Board is said to combine features required for High-Performance Computing, Embedded Computing and Cyber-Physical Systems, with typical applications including real-time data analysis of a huge amount of data, machine learning, neural networks, server farms, bitcoin miners, and so on.

It’s unclear when/if the board will be available for sale, and at what price.

Via Board DB and Single Board Computers G+ community.

Samsung Chromebook Plus / Pro with ARM Based OP1 / Intel Core m3-6Y30 Processor to Sell for $449 and Up

January 9th, 2017 14 comments

Samsung Chromebook Pro was first discovered last October on some reseller’s website with a Rockchip RK3399 hexa-core processor, 4GB RAM, and a $499 price tag. The company has finally announced two new Chromebooks at CES 2016 with Chromebook Pro actually based on an Intel Core m3-6Y30 “Skylake” processor, and Chromebook Plus powered by “OP1” hexa-core ARM Cortex-A72/A53 processor.

samsung-chromebook-pro-plusWe’ll that apart from the different processor, both new Chromebook have exactly the same specifications

Model Code XE513C24-K01US XE510C24-K01US
Chromebook Plus Chromebook Pro
Operating System Google Chrome
Processor / Chipset OP1, Made for Chromebooks.
Hexa-core (Dual A72, Quad A53)
Intel Core M3 Processor 6Y30
(0.90 GHz up to 2.20 GHz, 4 MB L3 Cache)
Graphic Internal Graphics Intel® HD Graphics 515
Display 12.3″ 2400×1600 LED Display (3:2 aspect ratio) with Touch Screen Panel
Memory 4GB LPDDR3 Memory (on BD 4GB)
Hard Drive 32GB e.MMC
Color Platinum Silver
Multimedia Internal Dual Array Digital Mic
Stereo Speakers ( 1.5 W x 2 )
720p HD Camera
Network 802.11 ac (2×2)
Bluetooth v4.0
Ports 1 Headphone out/Mic-in Combo
2 USB-C [up to 5Gbps*, 4K display out with optional adapter, Charging]
MicroSD Multi-media Card Reader
Input Clickpad
Touch screen
Island-type keyboard
Pen
Power 30 W USB-C™ Adapter
39Wh battery
Dimension 280.8 x 221.6 x 12.9 ~ 13.9mm (11.06″ x 8.72″ x 0.51″ ~ 0.55″)
Weight 1.08Kg (2.38lbs)
Software ※ Software can be changed without notice.
Google Play Store (Beta)
AirDroid Premium (free one-year subscription, full version)
ArtCanvas
Etc Accelerometer Sensor
Gyro Sensor

It’s very likely that OP1 processor is Rockchip RK3399, also using a 2xA72 + 4xA53 configuration, or a modified version, as Rockchip processor with Chromebooks used to have the “C” suffix, e.g. RK3288C. Charbax has a video of Chromebook Plus model showing the screen with an impressive viewing angle.

Chromebook Plus (ARM) is available now for $449 on Amazon US, while Chromebook Pro (Intel) will be released this spring at a yet-to-be-disclosed price.

Rockchip RV1108 Visual Processor is Designed for 1080p & 2K Camera Applications

January 9th, 2017 2 comments

Rockchip has joined other companies in developing camera SoCs with their RV1108 Visual Platform based on a single Cortex A7 core, a CEVA XM4 visual processing DSP, and capable of H.264 video encoding up to 1440p30 / 1080p60.

360 Camera Demo at CES 2017

360° Camera Demo at CES 2017 – Click to Enlarge

Rockchip RV1108 main features and specifications:

  • CPU – ARM Cortex A7 @ up to 1.0 GHz
  • DSP – embedded CEVA XM4 vision processor up to 600MHz
  • Video Encoder – 2K/H.264, high definition & low bit rate
  • Camera – MIPI CSI and DVP interfaces
  • Image processing – Low-light-level night vision imaging: 8MP professional image processing unit
  • Audio Processing – Audio Codec supporting up to 8-way MIC array, 3A? phonetic algorithms, such as echo cancellation, noise suppression;
  • Video Out/Input – HDMI OUT, CVBS OUT, MIPI DSI, CVBS IN
  • Networking – 10/100 Ethernet PHY

The processor is expected to be used in drones, IP cameras, car dashcams, sports/action cameras, as well as other applications such as panoramic cameras, computer vision applications, or real-time WiFi video transmitter. The company also released some comparison pictures and videos against a competitor camera showing the wider dynamic range of its solution. The competitor is likely based on either Allwinner V-series SoC or Novatek SoC.

rockchip-rv1108-vs-allwinner-v3

The text is much clearer with RV1108 in the top picture, the building has much better details with RV1108 in the second picture. I’m not sure how much of that is related to the sensor used however, as the company did not mention anything about that, and instead explained that their ” advanced graph and image processing technology, WDR(Wide Dynamic Range)technology directly influences the video shooting effect”.

RV1108 runs Linux OS with an optional MiniGUI, drivers for WiFi, Bluetooth, or GPS, and support for Android/iOS apps.

Rockchip was also at CES 2017 demonstrating RV1108 capabilities with a 360° camera demo pictures in the top picture, a streaming media rearview mirror, and a 2K VR camera. There’s no product page for RV1108 on Rockchip website yet.

$10 RTLDuino is an Arduino Compatible WiFi IoT Board based on Realtek RTL8710AF WiSoC

January 4th, 2017 1 comment

Last summer, we discovered a cheap RTL8710AF WiFi module with many of the same function as ESP8266, but with an ARM Cortex M3 core instead. The only problem is that it was not quite as easy to play with as ESP8266 boards, as at the time I started by playing with AT commands with B&T RTL00 RTL8710AF module, and later on, I got a more convenient PADI IoT Stamp with breakout board, but if you wanted to change the firmware you had to play with the SDK and a J-Link SWD debugger. Realtek RTL8710AF did not offer the convenience of Arduino IDE program like its big brother “RTL8195AM” from the same Ameba family. I know mbed is being worked on, but in the meantime things have changed for the better, as kissste informed me that RtlDuino implementation added Arduino support to RTL8710AF and RTL8711AM modules, and an NodeMCU-like board with the same name was also sold for less than $10 including shipping.

rtlduinoRTLduino board specifications:

  • WiSoC – Realtek RTL8710AF ARM Cortex-M3 micro-controller @ 83 MHz
  • Connectivity – 802.11 b/g/n WiFi
  • USB – 1x micro USB port for programming and power
  • Expansion – 2x 16-pin breadboard friendly headers with GPIOs, UART, SPI, I2C, PWM, I2S, power signals….
  • Misc – Reset and test button, RGB LED
  • Power Supply – 5V via micro USB port or Vin pin
  • Dimensions – 49 x 24.5 mm (same as NodeMCU)

As you can see from the picture above,the board is actually based on the B&T RTL-00 module I previously tested. This is obviously quite easier to use since you don’t need to solder any cables to connect a USB to TTL board since RTLduino is equipped with CH340g and a micro USB port.

rtlduino-board-rtl8710af

The Aliexpress page has some claims about 5 function that accordingly to kissste are not quite all correct:

  1. Function 1 – “Mbed debugging mode” over micro USB cable -> you won’t get – this is a different board (at least for now)
  2. Function 2 – “JTAG debugging mode” over micro USB cable -> you won’t get – this is a different board
  3. Function 3 – “Simple & fast by OTA to upgrade debugging” -> you will get partially – no debugging, but you can OTA upload new sketch
  4. Function 4 – “Serial data directly to the network transceiver function” (serial console via UART) -> OK
  5. Function 5 – “Smartconfig mode” -> yes, will work – OTA upload new sketch

If you want to do debugging, I understand you’ll still need a JTAG or SWD programmer. If you want to get started with Arduino on the board:

  • Install Arduino IDE and Ameba SDK
  • Go to Arduino IDE installation directory
  • Clone github.com/pvvx/RtlDuino into hardware/development/rtl87xx directory
  • Restart Arduino

I could not find anything in English where other people tested the implementation, but you’ll find a forum thread (in Russian) on esp8622.ru, and other person mentioned the project on hackaday.io, but has not reported on details about it yet.

Beside Aliexpress, RTLduino board can also be found on ICStation for $9.99, and Amazon US for $10.99.

Qorvo GP695 “Smart Home” SoC Integrates 802.15.4, Zigbee 3.0, Thread, and Bluetooth LE

January 4th, 2017 No comments

GreenPeak Technologies ultra-low power, short range RF communication technology company was acquired by Qorvo last year, and Qorvo has recently announced a GP695 system on chip (SoC) for smart home devices part of GreenPeak’s previous family of devices, and supporting multiple short range RF protocols.

qorvo-gp695GP695 key features:

  • MCU Core – ARM Cortex M4
  • Connectivity
    • IEEE 802.15.4
    • ZigBee 3.0
    • Thread
    • Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
    • Qorvo Wi-Fi interference mitigation technology

GP695 has been designed to be used in device such as a door locks, smart HVAC, smart security systems, connected video doorbells and intercoms, lightbulbs, smoke alarms, and leak detectors, and complements GP712 multi-protocol SoC designed for smart home gateways.

Qorvo will feature live demonstrations of its smart home and IoT solutions at its booth during CES 2017, at Sands Expo, Halls A-D Booth #42114. There’s very limited public information, and no product page could be found in their website.

Allwinner V3s Dual Camera SoC Comes with 64MB DRAM

December 30th, 2016 10 comments

Most SoCs have a very limited amount of internal SDRAM just enough to load the bootROM code, but a few integrated a few MB of RAM on-chip such as Renesas RZ/A1H with 10MB on-chip DRAM, in order to reduce costs for some applications that may not require external RAM. Allwinner V3s, designed for dual camera solutions, appeared to be such an SoC with 64MB (512Mbit) on-chip DDR2 RAM, but the block diagram seems to imply it is a System-in-Package (SiP) instead. Nevertheless you still get a single chip with an ARM Cortex A7 processor, two ISPs, a video engine, 64MB RAM, and more.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

Allwinner V3s main features & specifications:

  • CPU – ARM Cortex-A7 @ up to 1.2 GHz
  • Memory – Integrated 64MB DDR2 DRAM
  • Storage I/F – SD 2.0, eMMC 4.41, SPI NAND flash, SPI NOR flash
  • Audio Codec – 92dB audio codec supporting 2x ADC channels and 2x DAC channels, 1x low-noise analog microphone bias output, 1x microphone input and 1x stereo microphone output
  • Video Processing Unit
    • Encoding – [email protected] or [email protected] + [email protected] H.264
    • Decoding – [email protected] H.264 and MJPEG
  • Video Input/Output
    • 8/10/12-bit parallel CSI and 4-lane MIPI CSI2
    • Up to 5M CMOS sensor
    • RGB/i80/LVDS LCD up to 1024×768 resolution
  • Peripherals
    • 3x SD card controllers
    • LRADC/SPI/TWI/UART/PWM
    • USB 2.0 OTG
    • EMAC+PHY
  • ISP
    • Integrated “Hawkview” ISP up to 5M pixels
    • Supports 2x channel outputs for display and encoding respectively
    • Supports various input and output formats
    • Supports AE/AF/AWB
    • Supports saturation adjustment/ noise reduction/ defect pixel correction/distortion correction
  • Package – 128-pin eLQFP

The processor supports Camdroid, a lightweight operating system based on Android, as well as Linux just like its more powerful sibling (minus the built-in memory) Allwinner V3.

Block Diagram for a Typical Allwinner V3s Dashcam with Two Cameras

Block Diagram for a Typical Allwinner V3s Dashcam with Two Cameras

Beside Allwinner V3s product page, and the datasheet, there’s no that much info and talk about V3s in the Internet. Searching a bit more, I found out that Q3H-2 Sports Action Camera is based on the processor, and somebody did a short review of the thing with photo and video samples. Some people also did some hacking of the previous Q3H model based on Allwinner V3, but I’m not sure how much of that is usable on Q3H-2.

The makers of Lichee Pi One board have also designed an Allwinner V3s board named Lichee Pi Zero to sell for $6 in China, but I don’t have the full details, and only know some members of linux-sunxi have started to work on it. That still means there may be decent Linux support for the processor in a few months time.

Vorke Z3 Rockchip RK3399 TV Box to Launch in February 2017

December 20th, 2016 13 comments

I was expecting devices based on Rockchip RK3399 hexa-core processor to launch by the end of this year, that is about right now, but finally it looks like products will only start the show by the end of Q1 2017, as Firefly-RK3399 development board is scheduled to ship to backers in March 2017, while GeekBuying has started teasing us with their Vorke Z3 TV box powered by Rockchip RK3399 with 4GB RAM slated to launch in February 2017.

vorke-z3Vorke Z3 preliminary specifications:

  • SoC – Rockchip RK3399 hexa-core processor with  2x ARM Cortex A72 cores at up to 2.0GHz, 4x Cortex A53 cores, and an ARM Mali-T860MP4 GPU
  • System Memory – 4GB LPDDR3
  • Storage – 32GB eMMC flash, external SATA interface (hopefully implemented via the PCIe interface), micro SD slot
  • Video Output – HDMI 2.0 up to 4K @ 60 Hz
  • Video Decoder – 4K H.265 and VP9
  • Audio Output – HDMI, 3.5mm audio port, optical S/PDIF
  • Connectivity – Gigabit Ethernet, 802.11 b/g/n/ac WiFi up to 1200 Mbps (300 Mpbs + 867 Mbps)
  • USB – 1x USB 3.0 port, 1x USB 2.0 port, 1x USB type C port (for data and power external devices?)
  • Misc – IR receiver, mechanical power switch
  • Power Supply – TBD
  • Dimension & Weight – TBD

rockchip-rk3399-android-tv-boxThe box will run Android 6.0, and currently gets about 72,500 points in Antutu 6.x with 16,519 points for 3D graphics, 25,805 points for UX, 25,905 points for CPU, and 4254 points for RAM tests. There’s hope a good Linux support on Rockchip RK3399, as Google and Rockchip are working on RK3399 Chromebooks, actively committing code to mainline kernel, and Firefly has ported Ubuntu 16.04 to their RK3399 development board with 3D graphics acceleration, and hardware video decoding is coming.

rk3399-sataPrice has now been announced yet, but for reference, Firefly-RK3399 development board with 4GB RAM and 32GB storage is now offered with all accessories for $199 on Kickstarter, and Remix IO+ TV Box also sells with 4GB/32GB configuration sells for $139 shipped, so I’d expect Vorke Z3 to sell for about the same price.