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Posts Tagged ‘armv8’

sModule SBC-x6818 Development Kit based on Samsung S5P6818 Processor Includes a 7″ Touchscreen

July 13th, 2016 4 comments

For some reasons, Samsung S5P4418 and S5P6818 quad and eight Cortex A53 core processors – likely made by Nexell – have been quite popular with embedded systems companies based in China. So after Graperain, Boardcon, and FriendlyARM, there’s at least one another company offering solutions with either processor, as sModule, a subsidiary of CoreWind, has now launched systems-on-module, single board computers, and development kits with the 64-bit ARM SoCs. In this post, I’ll cover one of their development kit including their CORE6818 CPU module, a baseboard, and an optional 7″ capacitive touch display..

Samsung_S5P6818_Board_with_LCD_DIsplaysModule SBC-x6818 development kit specifications:

  • CORE6818 CPU module
    • SoC – Samsung S5P6818 octa-core ARM Cortex A53 processor @ 1.4 to 1.6 GHz with Mali-400MP 3D GPU
    • System Memory – 1GB DDR3 (2GB optional)
    • Storage – 8GB eMMC Flash (4 & 16GB optional)
    • Ethernet – Realtek RTL8211E Gigabit Ethernet transceiver
    • 180-pin “interface” to baseboard
    • Power Supply – 3.7 to 5.5V DC input; 3.3V / 4.2V DC output; AXP228 PMIC
    • Dimensions – 68 x 48 x 3 mm (8-layer PCB)
    • Temperature range – -10 to 70 deg. C
  • SBC-x6818 Baseboard
    • Storage – 2x micro SD card slots
    • Video Output / Display I/F – 1x HDMI up to 1080p30, LCD, 20-pin LVDS, and 20-pin MIPI DSI interfaces; optional 7″ capacitive touch screen (1024×768 resolution)
    • Audio – HDMI, and 3.5mm headphone jack, speaker header, built-in microphone
    • Connectivity – Gigabit Ethernet
    • USB – 4x USB 2.0 host ports, 1x mini (micro?) USB OTG port
    • Camera – 1x 20-pin camera interface
    •  Expansion
      • “GPIO” header with ADC, UART, SPI, SPDIF, and GPIOs
      • ADC terminal block
      • Serial – 2x DB9 UART interfaces, 2x UART headers
    • Misc – IR receiver; power, menu, volume, and return buttons;  RTC with battery (not populated?); PWM buzzer; boot selector: eMMC, SD card, or USB (with fastboot?)
    • Power
      • 5V/2A DC via power barrel;
      • Power out header with 12V, 3.3V, and GND
      • 2-pin battery header for 4.2V lithium battery
    • Dimensions – 185 x 110 mm

The company provides Android 4.4, Ubuntu 12.04, and Linux 3.5 + qt 5.0 for the board. As with other boards based on Samsung/Nexell S5P processors, don’t expect software updates for the firmware, so if you need security patchsets or the latest kernel features this won’t work for you. You can find a few details about the hardware on the Wiki.

Samsung_S5P6818_SBC

While other companies kept their price secret, sModule published prices for all their modules and boards, and even allow you to purchase them by PayPal or bank transfer. Their CORE4418 module starts at $49, while the development kit above goes for $119 with the touch screen, and $109 without. The more compact iBOX6818 single board computer – they call it card computer – with 2GB RAM goes for $75. More details can be found on sModule products page.

$599 Softiron Overdrive 1000 Server is Powered by AMD Opteron A1100 64-bit ARM Processor

June 26th, 2016 15 comments

ARMv8 servers have been around for a year or so, but normally only available to companies, mostly due to their very high price. LeMaker Cello board based on AMD Opteron A1120 quad core SoC have changed that since it’s priced at $299, but I’m not sure it’s shipping right now, and it’s not a complete solution fitted with memory and storage, and lacks an enclosure. The good news is that Softiron has just launched Overdrive 1000 server powered by AMD Opteron A1100 series processor, with 8GB DDR4 RAM, a 1TB drive, and a case.

Softiron_Overdrive_1000Softiron Overdrive 1000 server specifications:

  • SoC – AMD Opteron A1100 series quad core ARM Cortex A57 processor
  • System Memory – 2x RDIMM slots fitted with 8GB DDR4 DRAM and expandable to 64GB
  • Storage – 2x SATA 3.0 connector with one fitted with  a 1TB HDD
  • Connectivity – 1x GBase-T Ethernet
  • USB – 2x USB 3.0 ports
  • Power Supply – ATX power supply; 100~240V @ 50-60Hz
  • Dimensions – 315 x 222 x 76 mm or 463 x 385 x 145 mm (Product page vs product brief info)
  • Weight – 3.65 kg or 5.2 kg

A standard UEFI boot environment is used, and while you could install your distribution of choice, the server is pre-loaded with openSUSE Leap including a standard Linux GNU tool chain, platform device drivers, the Apache web server, MySQL, PHP, Xen, KVM Hypervisor, Docker, and OpenJDK 64-bit ARM.

I could not find much in the way of demo, but you can listen to ARM and Softiron representatives explaining why it’s a good choice…

If you’d like to go ahead, and get one, you can purchase Softiron Overdrive 1000 directly on the company’s website for $599 + shipping. In my case (Asia based), it would cost $87.06 via UPS, which looks not too bad considering the weight…

Via Andrew Wafaa

ARMv8 64-bit Processors To Replace Intel Xeon and SPARC64 Processors in Some Supercomputers

June 21st, 2016 5 comments

There’s been some news recently about Sunway TaihuLight supercomputer which nows top the list of the 500 fastest super computers with 93 PFLOPS achieved with Linpack, and is comprised of 40,960 Sunway SW26010 260 core “ShenWei” processors designed in China. But another interesting development is that ARMv8 are also slowly coming to supercomputers, starting with TianHe-2 super computer which is currently using Intel Xeon & Xeon Phi processors and second in the list, but according to a report on Vrworld, the US government decided to block US companies’ sales (i.e. Intel and AMD) to China as they were not at the top anymore, and also blocked Chinese investments into Intel and AMD, so the Chinese government decided to do it on their own, and are currently adding Phytium Mars 64-core 64-bit ARM processors to expand TianHe-2 processing power. Once the upgrade is complete Tianhe-2 should have 32,000 Xeons (as currently), 32,000 ShenWei processor, and 96,000 Phytium accelerator cards delivering up to 300 PFLOPS.

Japan K-Computer with Sparc 64 Processor

Japan K-Computer with SPARC64 Processors

One other report on The Register explains that the next generation of K-Computer, currently using Fujitsu SPARC64 processor, will instead feature Fujitsu ARMv8 processors in Post-K super computer in 2020 delivering up to 1000 PFLOPS (or 1 Exa FLOPS).  Details are sparse right now, but we do know Fujissu “has optimized the processor’s design to accelerate math, and squeeze the most of the die caches, hardware prefetcher and its Tofu interconnect”.

Post-K_ARM_Supercomputer

More details will likely be offered during “Towards Extreme-Scale Weather/Climate Simulation: The Post K Supercomputer & Our Challenges” presentation at ISC 2016 in Frankfurt, Germany later today.

Thanks to Sanders and Nicolas.

Categories: Linux, Processors Tags: arm, armv8, Linux, server

Cavium introduces 54 cores 64-bit ARMv8 ThunderX2 SoC for Servers with 100GbE, SATA 3, PCIe Gen3 Interfaces

June 1st, 2016 5 comments

Cavium announced their first 64-bit ARM Server SoCs with the 48-core ThunderX at Computex 2014. Two years later, the company has now introduced the second generation, aptly named ThunderX2, with 54 64-bit ARM cores @ up to 3.0 GHz and promising two to three times more performance than the previous generation.

Cavium_ThunderX2

Key features of the new server processor include:

  • 2nd generation of full custom Cavium ARM core; Multi-Issue, Fully OOO; 2.4 to 2.8 GHz in normal mode, Up to 3 GHz in Turbo mode.
  • Up to 54 cores per socket delivering > 2-3X socket level performance compared to ThunderX
  • Cache – 64K I-Cache and 40K D-Cache, highly associative; 32MB shared Last Level Cache (LLC).
  • Single and dual socket configuration support using 2nd generation of Cavium Coherent Interconnect with > 2.5X coherent bandwidth compared to ThunderX
  • System Memory
    • 6x DDR4 memory controllers per socket supporting up to 3 TB RAM in dual socket configuration
    • Dual DIMM per memory controller, for a total of 12 DIMMs per socket.
    • Up to 3200MHz in 1 DPC and 2966MHz in 2 DPC configuration.
  • Full system virtualization for low latency from virtual machine to IO enabled through Cavium virtSOC technology
  • Next Generation IO
    • Integrated 10/25/40/50/100GbE network connectivity.
    • Multiple integrated SATAv3 interfaces.
    • Integrated PCIe Gen3 interfaces, x1, x4, x8 and x16 support.
  • Integrated Hardware Accelerators
    • OCTEON style packet parsing, shaping, lookup, QoS and forwarding.
    • Virtual Switch (vSwitch) offload.
    • Virtualization, storage and NITROX V security.
  • Manufacturing Process – 14 nm FinFET

Cavium_ThunderX2_SKUs

Just like for Cavium ThunderX, four revisions (SKUs) will be provided to match specific requirements, with all support 10/25/40/50/100GbE connectivity:

  • ThunderX2_CP for cloud compute workloads.  Used for private and public clouds, web serving, web caching, web search, commercial HPC workloads such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and reservoir modeling. This family also includes PCIe Gen3 interfaces, and accelerators for virtualization and vSwitch offload.
  • ThunderX2_ST for optimized for big data, cloud storage, massively parallel processing (MPP) databases and Data warehousing. This family supports multiple PCIe Gen3 interfaces, SATAv3 interfaces, and hardware accelerators for data protection, integrity, security, and efficient data movement.
  • ThunderX2_SC for optimized for secure web front-end, security appliances and cloud RAN type workloads. This family supports multiple PCIe Gen3 interfaces, as well as Cavium’s NITROX security technology with acceleration for IPSec, RSA and SSL.
  • ThunderX2_NT optimized for media servers, scale-out embedded applications and NFV type workloads. This family includes  OCTEON style hardware accelerators for packet parsing, shaping, lookup, QoS and forwarding.

The processor complies with Server Base Boot Requirements (SBBR), UEFI, ACPI support), and SBSA Level 2, and will support Ubuntu 16.04 LTS and later, Red Hat Early Access for ARMv8,  SUSE SLES SP2 and later, CentOS 7.2 and later, and FreeBSD 11.0 and later.

Charbax interviewed the company at Computex 2016 in the 20-minute video below, where you can also see Gigabyte G220-T60 server with ThunderX with an Nvidia Tesla GPU (at the 7:20 mark) for “high performance compute applications”, and other servers based on the first generation ThunderX SoC.

It could not find when the SoC will be available. More details can be found on Cavium ThunderX2 product page.

$35 NanoPi M3 Octa Core 64-bit ARM Development Board is Powered by Samsung S5P6818 Processor

May 20th, 2016 24 comments

A few weeks after introducing NanoPC-T3 single board computer based on Samsung S5P6818 octa-core Cortex A53 processor, FriendlyARM is now launching a cost-down version called NanoPi M3 for just $35 with 1GB RAM, and booting from a micro SD card.

NanoPi_M3

NanoPi M3 board specifications:

  • SoC – Samsung S5P6818 octa core Cortex A53 processor @ up to 1.4GHz with Mali-400MP GPU
  • System Memory – 1 GB 32-bit DDR3
  • Storage – 1x micro SD card slot
  • Connectivity – Gigabit Ethernet (RTL8211E), 802.11 b/g/n WiFi and Bluetooth LE 4.0 (Ampak AP6212) with on-board chip antenna and IPX antenna connector
  • Video Output / Display I/F – HDMI 1.4a up to 1080p60, LVDS, parallel RGB LCD
  • Audio I/O – HDMI, 3.5mm audio jack, 7-pin I2S header
  • Camera – 1x DVP interface
  • USB – 2x USB 2.0 type A host ports; 1x micro USB 2.0 client port; 2x USB 2.0 host ports via 8-pin header
  • Expansions Headers – 40-pin header
  • Debugging – 4-pin header for serial console
  • Misc – Power & reset buttons; power status LEDs.
  • Power Supply – 5V/2A via micro USB port; AXP228 PMIC
  • Dimension – 64 x 60 mm (6-layer PCB)

Cheap_Octa_Core_BoardThe board supports Android and Debian running on top of Linux 3.4. More technical details can be found in the Wiki. Samsung S5P processors are actually made by Nexell, and not supported at all in mainline Linux, so don’t expect support for a more recent kernel. Arnd Bergmann, one of Linux ARM SoC maintainers, even referred the code to as “awful“:

Source code is available but awful.

Specifically, this is a Linux-3.4 kernel that looks more like a Linux-2.6.28 platform port that was forward-ported.

Nevertheless, at $35 plus shipping ($10 in my case),  NanoPi-M3 must be the cheapest octa-core board available on the market so far. Visit the product page for more details and/or purchase the board.

NXP Unveils i.MX 8 Multisensory Enablement Kit with Hexa Core ARMv8 Processor

May 17th, 2016 8 comments

Freescale, now NXP, i.MX 8 processors have been a long time coming, but finally the company has now unveiled a Multisensory Enablement Kit based on i.MX 8 hexa core ARMv8 processor combined with a Vulkan-ready & OpenCL capable GPU.

i.MX8_Multisensory_Enablement_KitKey features of the development kit:

  • Multisensory Processor Board
  • Multisensory Expansion Board
  • Isolation and separation of secure, safe and open domains
  • Rich compute (6x ARMv8 64-bit main CPUs, OpenCL GPU)
  • Vulkan-ready GPU with HW tessellation and geometry shading
  • Efficient, multi-screen (4x) support via HW virtualization
  • Failover-ready display path
  • Up to 8x camera input for 360 degree vision
  • Integrated vision processing
  • HDR enhanced video
  • Multi-sensor fusion and expansion
  • Multi-core audio and speech processing
  • NXP radio solution integration

However, at the time of writing, there’s very little information about i.MX8 processors themselves, but I’m confident much more info should soon surface as NXP FTF 2016 is taking place now until May 19, 2016. The press release about i.MX8 MEK does mention 4K video and graphics, and some security features. The company expects the processor to be used for for intuitive gesture control, voice recognition, natural speech recognition and audio acceleration, as well as healthcare and industrial applications such as connected vehicles.

NXP i.MX 8 MEK is said to be available now, together with the BSPs and middleware. More details should eventually be posted on i.MX8 MEK page.

[Update: I found a slide about i.MX8 with some details. Source: NXP Forums.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

Categories: Hardware, Linux, NXP i.MX Tags: 4k, armv8, automotive, devkit, nxp

How to Run Ubuntu 16.04 Aarch64 (64-bit ARM) Cloud Images on Your Intel/AMD Linux Computer with QEMU

May 10th, 2016 4 comments

With the recent launch of several low cost Cortex A53 development boards, 64-bit ARM hardware is now pretty common and inexpensive, but if you want to run 64-bit ARM code on your x86 Linux computer, Riku Voipio, a software engineer working for Linaro, wrote some instructions to run Ubuntu 16.04 Aarch64 Cloud image in QEMU. Ubuntu cloud images are “the official Ubuntu images and are pre-installed disk images that have been customized by Ubuntu engineering to run on public clouds that provide Ubuntu Certified Images, Openstack, LXD, and more. ”  So the instructions are also useful if you want to easily try such packages on 64-bit ARM platform.

Ubuntu_16.04_ARM_Cortex_A57

Ubuntu 16.04 with Linux 4.4 Running on a Dual Core Cortex A57 Processor in QEMU

I’ve tried those instructions myself on my Ubuntu 14.04 machine with and AMD FX8350 processor, and they worked pretty well, and the only things I had to find out by myself was to install a recent version of qemu.

First, we’ll need to install qemu & cloud-utils, and download QEMU EFI firmware  as well as the Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial server Cloud image:

The instructions require qemu-system-aarch64 version 2.5, and my system only comes with qemu 2.0.0

So I had to find a qemu ppa to install a more recent version:

I now have version 2.5:

Since the Cloud images don’t come with default username and password, they need to configured with cloud-utils. To do so, I created cloud-utils as follows:

You simply need to change the file with your username, and RSA key, which should be in ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub. If you don’t have that file you may want to read my post  showing how to create the SSH key and login without password. Cloud config can take many arguments, including packages to install during the first boot, and you can learn all about it on Cloud-init documentation.

Now you can initialize the cloud image, and run it:

The boot until the login prompt tool about 3 minutes on my machine. Here’s the boot log:

error: no suitable video mode found.
EFI stub: Booting Linux Kernel…
EFI stub: Using DTB from configuration table
EFI stub: Exiting boot services and installing virtual address map…
[ 0.000000] Booting Linux on physical CPU 0x0
[ 0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpuset
[ 0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpu
[ 0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpuacct
[ 0.000000] Linux version 4.4.0-22-generic ([email protected]) (gcc version 5.3.1 20160413 (Ubuntu/Linaro 5.3.1-14ubuntu2) ) #39-Ubuntu SMP Thu May 5 16:54:53 UTC 2016 (Ubuntu 4.4.0-22.39-generic 4.4.8)
[ 0.000000] Boot CPU: AArch64 Processor [411fd070]
[ 0.000000] efi: Getting EFI parameters from FDT:
[ 0.000000] EFI v2.50 by EDK II
[ 0.000000] efi: SMBIOS=0x7c020000 SMBIOS 3.0=0x7bf90000 PROP=0x7f7b8d78 ACPI=0x7c040000 ACPI 2.0=0x7c040014
[ 0.000000] No NUMA configuration found
[ 0.000000] NUMA: Faking a node at [mem 0x0000000000000000-0x000000007fffffff]
[ 0.000000] NUMA: Adding memblock [0x40000000 – 0x7fffffff] on node 0
[ 0.000000] NUMA: Initmem setup node 0 [mem 0x40000000-0x7fffffff]
[ 0.000000] NUMA: NODE_DATA [mem 0x7fff2280-0x7fff3fff]
[ 0.000000] Zone ranges:
[ 0.000000] DMA [mem 0x0000000040000000-0x000000007fffffff]
[ 0.000000] Normal empty
[ 0.000000] Movable zone start for each node
[ 0.000000] Early memory node ranges
[ 0.000000] node 0: [mem 0x0000000040000000-0x000000007fffffff]
[ 0.000000] Initmem setup node 0 [mem 0x0000000040000000-0x000000007fffffff]
[ 0.000000] psci: probing for conduit method from DT.
[ 0.000000] psci: PSCIv0.2 detected in firmware.
[ 0.000000] psci: Using standard PSCI v0.2 function IDs
[ 0.000000] psci: Trusted OS migration not required
[ 0.000000] PERCPU: Embedded 17 pages/cpu @ffff80003ffc7000 s31128 r8192 d30312 u69632
[ 0.000000] Detected PIPT I-cache on CPU0
[ 0.000000] CPU features: enabling workaround for ARM erratum 832075
[ 0.000000] CPU features: enabling workaround for ARM erratum 834220
[ 0.000000] Built 1 zonelists in Node order, mobility grouping on. Total pages: 258048
[ 0.000000] Policy zone: DMA
[ 0.000000] Kernel command line: BOOT_IMAGE=/boot/vmlinuz-4.4.0-22-generic root=LABEL=cloudimg-rootfs vt.handoff=7
[ 0.000000] PID hash table entries: 4096 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)
[ 0.000000] software IO TLB [mem 0x77dc0000-0x7bdc0000] (64MB) mapped at [ffff800037dc0000-ffff80003bdbffff]
[ 0.000000] Memory: 923168K/1048576K available (8720K kernel code, 1006K rwdata, 3772K rodata, 760K init, 786K bss, 125408K reserved, 0K cma-reserved)
[ 0.000000] Virtual kernel memory layout:
[ 0.000000] vmalloc : 0xffff000000000000 – 0xffff7bffbfff0000 (126974 GB)
[ 0.000000] vmemmap : 0xffff7bffc0000000 – 0xffff7fffc0000000 ( 4096 GB maximum)
[ 0.000000] 0xffff7bffc0000000 – 0xffff7bffc1000000 ( 16 MB actual)
[ 0.000000] fixed : 0xffff7ffffa7fd000 – 0xffff7ffffac00000 ( 4108 KB)
[ 0.000000] PCI I/O : 0xffff7ffffae00000 – 0xffff7ffffbe00000 ( 16 MB)
[ 0.000000] modules : 0xffff7ffffc000000 – 0xffff800000000000 ( 64 MB)
[ 0.000000] memory : 0xffff800000000000 – 0xffff800040000000 ( 1024 MB)
[ 0.000000] .init : 0xffff800000cb5000 – 0xffff800000d73000 ( 760 KB)
[ 0.000000] .text : 0xffff800000080000 – 0xffff800000cb5000 ( 12500 KB)
[ 0.000000] .data : 0xffff800000d84000 – 0xffff800000e7fa00 ( 1007 KB)
[ 0.000000] SLUB: HWalign=64, Order=0-3, MinObjects=0, CPUs=2, Nodes=1
[ 0.000000] Hierarchical RCU implementation.
[ 0.000000] Build-time adjustment of leaf fanout to 64.
[ 0.000000] RCU restricting CPUs from NR_CPUS=128 to nr_cpu_ids=2.
[ 0.000000] RCU: Adjusting geometry for rcu_fanout_leaf=64, nr_cpu_ids=2
[ 0.000000] NR_IRQS:64 nr_irqs:64 0
[ 0.000000] GICv2m: range[0x8020000:0x8020fff], SPI[80:144]
[ 0.000000] Architected cp15 timer(s) running at 62.50MHz (virt).
[ 0.000000] clocksource: arch_sys_counter: mask: 0xffffffffffffff max_cycles: 0x1cd42e208c, max_idle_ns: 881590405314 ns
[ 0.000135] sched_clock: 56 bits at 62MHz, resolution 16ns, wraps every 4398046511096ns
[ 0.006123] vt handoff: transparent VT on vt#7
[ 0.006565] Console: colour dummy device 80×25
[ 0.007325] console [tty0] enabled
[ 0.008449] Calibrating delay loop (skipped), value calculated using timer frequency.. 125.00 BogoMIPS (lpj=250000)
[ 0.008599] pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
[ 0.009541] Security Framework initialized
[ 0.009610] Yama: becoming mindful.
[ 0.011833] AppArmor: AppArmor initialized
[ 0.015594] Dentry cache hash table entries: 131072 (order: 8, 1048576 bytes)
[ 0.017840] Inode-cache hash table entries: 65536 (order: 7, 524288 bytes)
[ 0.018889] Mount-cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[ 0.018992] Mountpoint-cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[ 0.029386] Initializing cgroup subsys io
[ 0.029795] Initializing cgroup subsys memory
[ 0.030134] Initializing cgroup subsys devices
[ 0.030245] Initializing cgroup subsys freezer
[ 0.030346] Initializing cgroup subsys net_cls
[ 0.030421] Initializing cgroup subsys perf_event
[ 0.030490] Initializing cgroup subsys net_prio
[ 0.030574] Initializing cgroup subsys hugetlb
[ 0.030676] Initializing cgroup subsys pids
[ 0.031176] ftrace: allocating 30291 entries in 119 pages
[ 0.725663] Remapping and enabling EFI services.
[ 0.726171] EFI remap 0x0000000004000000 => 0000000040000000
[ 0.726421] EFI remap 0x0000000009010000 => 0000000044000000
[ 0.726500] EFI remap 0x000000007be40000 => 0000000044010000
[ 0.726557] EFI remap 0x000000007bea0000 => 0000000044070000
[ 0.726576] EFI remap 0x000000007beb0000 => 0000000044080000
[ 0.726597] EFI remap 0x000000007bf30000 => 0000000044100000
[ 0.726615] EFI remap 0x000000007bf40000 => 0000000044110000
[ 0.726632] EFI remap 0x000000007bf50000 => 0000000044120000
[ 0.726656] EFI remap 0x000000007c020000 => 00000000441d0000
[ 0.726673] EFI remap 0x000000007c050000 => 00000000441e0000
[ 0.726689] EFI remap 0x000000007c060000 => 00000000441f0000
[ 0.726706] EFI remap 0x000000007c070000 => 0000000044200000
[ 0.726771] EFI remap 0x000000007c0f0000 => 0000000044280000
[ 0.726802] EFI remap 0x000000007c100000 => 0000000044290000
[ 0.726819] EFI remap 0x000000007c110000 => 00000000442a0000
[ 0.726842] EFI remap 0x000000007c1e0000 => 0000000044370000
[ 0.726858] EFI remap 0x000000007c1f0000 => 0000000044380000
[ 0.726876] EFI remap 0x000000007c200000 => 0000000044390000
[ 0.726951] EFI remap 0x000000007c280000 => 0000000044410000
[ 0.726981] EFI remap 0x000000007c290000 => 0000000044420000
[ 0.726998] EFI remap 0x000000007c2a0000 => 0000000044430000
[ 0.727016] EFI remap 0x000000007f5b0000 => 0000000044460000
[ 0.727036] EFI remap 0x000000007f600000 => 00000000444b0000
[ 0.727053] EFI remap 0x000000007f610000 => 00000000444c0000
[ 0.727071] EFI remap 0x000000007f650000 => 00000000444f0000
[ 0.727618] ASID allocator initialised with 65536 entries
[ 0.746070] Detected PIPT I-cache on CPU1
[ 0.747515] CPU1: Booted secondary processor [411fd070]
[ 0.749129] Brought up 2 CPUs
[ 0.749201] SMP: Total of 2 processors activated.
[ 0.749430] CPU: All CPU(s) started at EL1
[ 0.750222] alternatives: patching kernel code
[ 0.766144] devtmpfs: initialized
[ 0.775039] evm: security.selinux
[ 0.775075] evm: security.SMACK64
[ 0.775089] evm: security.SMACK64EXEC
[ 0.775102] evm: security.SMACK64TRANSMUTE
[ 0.775116] evm: security.SMACK64MMAP
[ 0.775129] evm: security.ima
[ 0.775142] evm: security.capability
[ 0.778658] SMBIOS 3.0.0 present.
[ 0.779858] clocksource: jiffies: mask: 0xffffffff max_cycles: 0xffffffff, max_idle_ns: 7645041785100000 ns
[ 0.782640] pinctrl core: initialized pinctrl subsystem
[ 0.794894] NET: Registered protocol family 16
[ 0.810548] cpuidle: using governor ladder
[ 0.823124] cpuidle: using governor menu
[ 0.823790] vdso: 2 pages (1 code @ ffff800000d89000, 1 data @ ffff800000d88000)
[ 0.824292] hw-breakpoint: found 6 breakpoint and 4 watchpoint registers.
[ 0.826321] DMA: preallocated 256 KiB pool for atomic allocations
[ 0.827846] Serial: AMBA PL011 UART driver
[ 0.855107] 9000000.pl011: ttyAMA0 at MMIO 0x9000000 (irq = 37, base_baud = 0) is a PL011 rev1
[ 0.893760] console [ttyAMA0] enabled
[ 0.946328] ACPI: Interpreter disabled.
[ 0.949605] vgaarb: loaded
[ 0.955849] SCSI subsystem initialized
[ 0.958552] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbfs
[ 0.959246] usbcore: registered new interface driver hub
[ 0.959790] usbcore: registered new device driver usb
[ 0.971932] NetLabel: Initializing
[ 0.972153] NetLabel: domain hash size = 128
[ 0.972377] NetLabel: protocols = UNLABELED CIPSOv4
[ 0.973808] NetLabel: unlabeled traffic allowed by default
[ 0.976092] clocksource: Switched to clocksource arch_sys_counter
[ 1.099009] AppArmor: AppArmor Filesystem Enabled
[ 1.100738] pnp: PnP ACPI: disabled
[ 1.149920] NET: Registered protocol family 2
[ 1.157502] TCP established hash table entries: 8192 (order: 4, 65536 bytes)
[ 1.158260] TCP bind hash table entries: 8192 (order: 5, 131072 bytes)
[ 1.158865] TCP: Hash tables configured (established 8192 bind 8192)
[ 1.160369] UDP hash table entries: 512 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[ 1.160845] UDP-Lite hash table entries: 512 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[ 1.162945] NET: Registered protocol family 1
[ 1.169176] Trying to unpack rootfs image as initramfs…
[ 38.466085] Freeing initrd memory: 20908K (ffff80002a69a000 – ffff80002bb05000)
[ 38.467445] kvm [1]: HYP mode not available
[ 38.471688] futex hash table entries: 512 (order: 4, 65536 bytes)
[ 38.472992] audit: initializing netlink subsys (disabled)
[ 38.474139] audit: type=2000 audit(37.848:1): initialized
[ 38.480527] Initialise system trusted keyring
[ 38.485484] HugeTLB registered 2 MB page size, pre-allocated 0 pages
[ 38.510331] zbud: loaded
[ 38.516406] VFS: Disk quotas dquot_6.6.0
[ 38.517291] VFS: Dquot-cache hash table entries: 512 (order 0, 4096 bytes)
[ 38.528806] fuse init (API version 7.23)
[ 38.532598] Key type big_key registered
[ 38.533202] Allocating IMA MOK and blacklist keyrings.
[ 38.546907] Key type asymmetric registered
[ 38.547225] Asymmetric key parser ‘x509’ registered
[ 38.548522] Block layer SCSI generic (bsg) driver version 0.4 loaded (major 249)
[ 38.549875] io scheduler noop registered
[ 38.550151] io scheduler deadline registered (default)
[ 38.551097] io scheduler cfq registered
[ 38.557770] pci_hotplug: PCI Hot Plug PCI Core version: 0.5
[ 38.558156] pciehp: PCI Express Hot Plug Controller Driver version: 0.4
[ 38.559066] PCI host bridge [email protected] ranges:
[ 38.559706] IO 0x3eff0000..0x3effffff -> 0x00000000
[ 38.560395] MEM 0x10000000..0x3efeffff -> 0x10000000
[ 38.560672] MEM 0x8000000000..0xffffffffff -> 0x8000000000
[ 38.563045] pci-host-generic 3f000000.pcie: PCI host bridge to bus 0000:00
[ 38.563709] pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [bus 00-0f]
[ 38.564346] pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [io 0x0000-0xffff]
[ 38.564681] pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [mem 0x10000000-0x3efeffff]
[ 38.565020] pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [mem 0x8000000000-0xffffffffff]
[ 38.585136] Serial: 8250/16550 driver, 32 ports, IRQ sharing enabled
[ 38.615449] msm_serial: driver initialized
[ 38.620995] Unable to detect cache hierarchy from DT for CPU 0
[ 38.681657] brd: module loaded
[ 38.707298] loop: module loaded
[ 38.744265] vdb: vdb1 vdb15
[ 38.755415] libphy: Fixed MDIO Bus: probed
[ 38.755791] tun: Universal TUN/TAP device driver, 1.6
[ 38.756571] tun: (C) 1999-2004 Max Krasnyansky <[email protected]>
[ 38.769050] PPP generic driver version 2.4.2
[ 38.772339] ehci_hcd: USB 2.0 ‘Enhanced’ Host Controller (EHCI) Driver
[ 38.772918] ehci-pci: EHCI PCI platform driver
[ 38.773577] ohci_hcd: USB 1.1 ‘Open’ Host Controller (OHCI) Driver
[ 38.774282] ohci-pci: OHCI PCI platform driver
[ 38.775318] uhci_hcd: USB Universal Host Controller Interface driver
[ 38.781025] mousedev: PS/2 mouse device common for all mice
[ 38.785156] i2c /dev entries driver
[ 38.790822] device-mapper: uevent: version 1.0.3
[ 38.793082] device-mapper: ioctl: 4.34.0-ioctl (2015-10-28) initialised: [email protected]
[ 38.795243] ledtrig-cpu: registered to indicate activity on CPUs
[ 38.795611] EFI Variables Facility v0.08 2004-May-17
[ 38.808496] NET: Registered protocol family 10
[ 38.816988] NET: Registered protocol family 17
[ 38.817611] Key type dns_resolver registered
[ 38.818458] Registered cp15_barrier emulation handler
[ 38.818815] Registered setend emulation handler
[ 38.822549] registered taskstats version 1
[ 38.823009] Loading compiled-in X.509 certificates
[ 38.833206] Loaded X.509 cert ‘Build time autogenerated kernel key: a959bfeeeafa5217003d029b713b4f3761d43036’
[ 38.834712] zswap: loaded using pool lzo/zbud
[ 38.939508] Key type trusted registered
[ 39.135319] Key type encrypted registered
[ 39.135696] AppArmor: AppArmor sha1 policy hashing enabled
[ 39.136679] ima: No TPM chip found, activating TPM-bypass!
[ 39.138753] evm: HMAC attrs: 0x1
[ 39.141193] hctosys: unable to open rtc device (rtc0)
[ 39.146796] uart-pl011 9000000.pl011: no DMA platform data
[ 39.194827] Freeing unused kernel memory: 760K (ffff800000cb5000 – ffff800000d73000)
[ 39.195339] Freeing alternatives memory: 48K (ffff800000d73000 – ffff800000d7f000)
Loading, please wait…
starting version 229
[ 39.750435] random: systemd-udevd urandom read with 1 bits of entropy available
Begin: Loading essential drivers … [ 46.415344] md: linear personality registered for level -1
[ 46.515772] md: multipath personality registered for level -4
[ 46.620934] md: raid0 personality registered for level 0
[ 46.726240] md: raid1 personality registered for level 1
[ 46.926037] raid6: int64x1 gen() 474 MB/s
[ 46.992135] raid6: int64x1 xor() 397 MB/s
[ 47.060108] raid6: int64x2 gen() 892 MB/s
[ 47.128118] raid6: int64x2 xor() 588 MB/s
[ 47.196003] raid6: int64x4 gen() 1156 MB/s
[ 47.264122] raid6: int64x4 xor() 777 MB/s
[ 47.332052] raid6: int64x8 gen() 538 MB/s
[ 47.400093] raid6: int64x8 xor() 450 MB/s
[ 47.468291] raid6: neonx1 gen() 330 MB/s
[ 47.536209] raid6: neonx1 xor() 189 MB/s
[ 47.604233] raid6: neonx2 gen() 398 MB/s
[ 47.672095] raid6: neonx2 xor() 163 MB/s
[ 47.740157] raid6: neonx4 gen() 440 MB/s
[ 47.808224] raid6: neonx4 xor() 238 MB/s
[ 47.876048] raid6: neonx8 gen() 385 MB/s
[ 47.944072] raid6: neonx8 xor() 230 MB/s
[ 47.944350] raid6: using algorithm int64x4 gen() 1156 MB/s
[ 47.944628] raid6: …. xor() 777 MB/s, rmw enabled
[ 47.944939] raid6: using intx1 recovery algorithm
[ 47.952791] xor: measuring software checksum speed
[ 47.996241] 8regs : 1440.000 MB/sec
[ 48.036207] 8regs_prefetch: 1445.000 MB/sec
[ 48.076186] 32regs : 1336.000 MB/sec
[ 48.116043] 32regs_prefetch: 1343.000 MB/sec
[ 48.116350] xor: using function: 8regs_prefetch (1445.000 MB/sec)
[ 48.123591] async_tx: api initialized (async)
[ 48.216579] md: raid6 personality registered for level 6
[ 48.216952] md: raid5 personality registered for level 5
[ 48.217259] md: raid4 personality registered for level 4
[ 48.475262] md: raid10 personality registered for level 10
done.
Begin: Running /scripts/init-premount … done.
Begin: Mounting root file system … Begin: Running /scripts/local-top … done.
Begin: Running /scripts/local-premount … [ 49.365334] Btrfs loaded
Scanning for Btrfs filesystems
done.
Warning: fsck not present, so skipping root file system
[ 50.489875] EXT4-fs (vdb1): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. Opts: (null)
done.
Begin: Running /scripts/local-bottom … done.
Begin: Running /scripts/init-bottom … Warning: overlayroot: debug is busted
done.
[ 52.425729] systemd[1]: System time before build time, advancing clock.
[ 52.600812] systemd[1]: systemd 229 running in system mode. (+PAM +AUDIT +SELINUX +IMA +APPARMOR +SMACK +SYSVINIT +UTMP +LIBCRYPTSETUP +GCRYPT +GNUTLS +ACL +XZ -LZ4 +SECCOMP +BLKID +ELFUTILS +KMOD -IDN)
[ 52.602459] systemd[1]: Detected virtualization qemu.
[ 52.602901] systemd[1]: Detected architecture arm64.Welcome to Ubuntu 16.04 LTS![ 52.615513] systemd[1]: Set hostname to .
[ 52.631062] systemd[1]: Initializing machine ID from random generator.
[ 52.633892] systemd[1]: Installed transient /etc/machine-id file.
[ 54.777420] systemd[1]: Created slice System Slice.
[ OK ] Created slice System Slice.
[ 54.787015] systemd[1]: Created slice system-getty.slice.
[ OK ] Created slice system-getty.slice.
[ 54.791265] systemd[1]: Listening on Journal Socket.
[ OK ] Listening on Journal Socket.
[ 54.827391] systemd[1]: Starting Create list of required static device nodes for the current kernel…
Starting Create list of required st… nodes for the current kernel…
[ 54.839431] systemd[1]: Reached target User and Group Name Lookups.
[ OK ] Reached target User and Group Name Lookups.
[ 54.900677] systemd[1]: Listening on Journal Audit Socket.
[ OK ] Listening on Journal Audit Socket.
[ 54.937520] systemd[1]: Listening on Syslog Socket.
[ OK ] Listening on Syslog Socket.
[ 55.061147] systemd[1]: Mounting Debug File System…
Mounting Debug File System…
[ 55.125920] systemd[1]: Created slice system-serial\x2dgetty.slice.
[ OK ] Created slice system-serial\x2dgetty.slice.
[ 55.130335] systemd[1]: Listening on udev Control Socket.
[ OK ] Listening on udev Control Socket.
[ 55.166043] systemd[1]: Listening on /dev/initctl Compatibility Named Pipe.
[ OK ] Listening on /dev/initctl Compatibility Named Pipe.
[ 55.203000] systemd[1]: Created slice User and Session Slice.
[ OK ] Created slice User and Session Slice.
[ 55.230696] systemd[1]: Started Forward Password Requests to Wall Directory Watch.
[ OK ] Started Forward Password Requests to Wall Directory Watch.
[ 55.270726] systemd[1]: Starting Uncomplicated firewall…
Starting Uncomplicated firewall…
[ 55.302712] systemd[1]: Set up automount Arbitrary Executable File Formats File System Automount Point.
[ OK ] Set up automount Arbitrary Executab…ats File System Automount Point.
[ 55.342570] systemd[1]: Listening on LVM2 metadata daemon socket.
[ OK ] Listening on LVM2 metadata daemon socket.
[ 55.437727] systemd[1]: Mounting Huge Pages File System…
Mounting Huge Pages File System…
[ 55.478207] systemd[1]: Reached target Swap.
[ OK ] Reached target Swap.
[ 55.505859] systemd[1]: Reached target Slices.
[ OK ] Reached target Slices.
[ 55.653438] systemd[1]: Mounting POSIX Message Queue File System…
Mounting POSIX Message Queue File System…
[ 55.671273] systemd[1]: Reached target Encrypted Volumes.
[ OK ] Reached target Encrypted Volumes.
[ 55.826639] systemd[1]: Starting Remount Root and Kernel File Systems…
Starting Remount Root and Kernel File Systems…
[ 55.895229] systemd[1]: Listening on Journal Socket (/dev/log).
[ OK ] Listening on Journal Socket (/dev/log).
[ 55.978436] systemd[1]: Listening on Device-mapper event daemon FIFOs.
[ OK ] Listening on Device-mapper event daemon FIFOs.
[ 56.039144] systemd[1]: Listening on udev Kernel Socket.
[ OK ] Listening on udev Kernel Socket.
[ 56.338358] systemd[1]: Starting Load Kernel Modules…
Starting Load Kernel Modules…
[ 56.393745] systemd[1]: Listening on LVM2 poll daemon socket.
[ OK ] Listening on LVM2 poll daemon socket.
[ 56.554266] systemd[1]: Starting Nameserver information manager…
Starting Nameserver information manager…
[ 56.634591] systemd[1]: Starting Monitoring of LVM2 mirrors, snapshots etc. using dmeventd or progress polling…
Starting Monitoring of LVM2 mirrors… dmeventd or progress polling…
[ 56.742477] systemd[1]: Starting Journal Service…
Starting Journal Service…
[ 57.001027] systemd[1]: Mounted POSIX Message Queue File System.
[ OK ] Mounted POSIX Message Queue File System.
[ 57.064715] systemd[1]: Mounted Debug File System.
[ OK ] Mounted Debug File System.
[ 57.101124] systemd[1]: Mounted Huge Pages File System.
[ OK ] Mounted Huge Pages File System.
[ 57.227288] systemd[1]: Started Create list of required static device nodes for the current kernel.
[ OK ] Started Create list of required sta…ce nodes for the current kernel.
[ 57.258454] systemd[1]: Started Uncomplicated firewall.
[ OK ] Started Uncomplicated firewall.
[ 57.304651] EXT4-fs (vdb1): re-mounted. Opts: (null)
[ 57.527628] systemd[1]: Started Remount Root and Kernel File Systems.
[ OK ] Started Remount Root and Kernel File Systems.
[ 58.358611] systemd[1]: Started Nameserver information manager.
[ OK ] Started Nameserver information manager.
[ 59.850589] Loading iSCSI transport class v2.0-870.
[ 60.059388] systemd[1]: Started LVM2 metadata daemon.
[ OK ] Started LVM2 metadata daemon.
[ 60.205315] systemd[1]: Starting Load/Save Random Seed…
Starting Load/Save Random Seed…
[ 60.467673] iscsi: registered transport (tcp)
[ 60.479537] systemd[1]: Starting udev Coldplug all Devices…
Starting udev Coldplug all Devices…
[ 60.566825] systemd[1]: Starting Create Static Device Nodes in /dev…
Starting Create Static Device Nodes in /dev…
[ 60.630029] systemd[1]: Started Journal Service.
[ OK ] Started Journal Service.
Starting Flush Journal to Persistent Storage…
[ OK ] Started Load/Save Random Seed.
[ 62.065118] systemd-journald[368]: Received request to flush runtime journal from PID 1
[ OK ] Started Flush Journal to Persistent Storage.
[ 62.627589] iscsi: registered transport (iser)
[ OK ] Started Load Kernel Modules.
[ OK ] Started Monitoring of LVM2 mirrors,…ng dmeventd or progress polling.
Starting Apply Kernel Variables…
Mounting FUSE Control File System…
[ OK ] Mounted FUSE Control File System.
[ OK ] Started Create Static Device Nodes in /dev.
Starting udev Kernel Device Manager…
[ OK ] Started Apply Kernel Variables.
[ OK ] Started udev Coldplug all Devices.
[ OK ] Started udev Kernel Device Manager.
[ OK ] Reached target Local File Systems (Pre).
[ OK ] Started Dispatch Password Requests to Console Directory Watch.
[ OK ] Found device /dev/ttyAMA0.
[ OK ] Found device /dev/disk/by-label/UEFI.
Mounting /boot/efi…
[ OK ] Mounted /boot/efi.
[ OK ] Reached target Local File Systems.
Starting Initial cloud-init job (pre-networking)…
Starting Tell Plymouth To Write Out Runtime Data…
Starting Set console keymap…
Starting Create Volatile Files and Directories…
Starting LSB: AppArmor initialization…
Starting Commit a transient machine-id on disk…
[ OK ] Started Tell Plymouth To Write Out Runtime Data.
[FAILED] Failed to start Set console keymap.
See ‘systemctl status console-setup.service’ for details.
[ OK ] Started Commit a transient machine-id on disk.
[ OK ] Listening on Load/Save RF Kill Switch Status /dev/rfkill Watch.
[ OK ] Started Create Volatile Files and Directories.
Starting Network Time Synchronization…
Starting Update UTMP about System Boot/Shutdown…
[ OK ] Started Update UTMP about System Boot/Shutdown.
[ OK ] Started Network Time Synchronization.
[ OK ] Reached target System Time Synchronized.
[ OK ] Started LSB: AppArmor initialization.
[ OK ] Reached target System Initialization.
[ OK ] Started Trigger resolvconf update for networkd DNS.
[ OK ] Listening on ACPID Listen Socket.
[ OK ] Listening on D-Bus System Message Bus Socket.
Starting Socket activation for snappy daemon.
Starting Seed the pseudo random number generator on first boot…
Starting LXD – unix socket.
[ OK ] Started Daily Cleanup of Temporary Directories.
[ OK ] Started Daily apt activities.
[ OK ] Reached target Timers.
[ OK ] Listening on UUID daemon activation socket.
[ OK ] Started ACPI Events Check.
[ OK ] Reached target Paths.
[ OK ] Listening on Socket activation for snappy daemon.
[ OK ] Listening on LXD – unix socket.
[ OK ] Reached target Sockets.
[ OK ] Reached target Basic System.
Starting LXD – container startup/shutdown…
[ OK ] Started Deferred execution scheduler.
[ OK ] Started Regular background program processing daemon.
[ OK ] Started D-Bus System Message Bus.
[ OK ] Started ACPI event daemon.
Starting System Logging Service…
Starting Login Service…
Starting Accounts Service…
[ OK ] Started FUSE filesystem for LXC.
Starting LSB: Record successful boot for GRUB…
Starting LSB: MD monitoring daemon…
[ OK ] Started Login Service.
[ OK ] Started System Logging Service.
Starting Authenticate and Authorize Users to Run Privileged Tasks…
[ OK ] Started LSB: Record successful boot for GRUB.
[ OK ] Started LSB: MD monitoring daemon.
[ OK ] Started Authenticate and Authorize Users to Run Privileged Tasks.
[ OK ] Started Accounts Service.
[ OK ] Started Seed the pseudo random number generator on first boot.
[ OK ] Started LXD – container startup/shutdown.
[ 137.551732] cloud-init[502]: Cloud-init v. 0.7.7 running ‘init-local’ at Thu, 11 Feb 2016 16:29:14 +0000. Up 126.47 seconds.
[ OK ] Started Initial cloud-init job (pre-networking).
[ OK ] Reached target Network (Pre).
Starting Raise network interfaces…
[ OK ] Started Raise network interfaces.
Starting Initial cloud-init job (metadata service crawler)…
[ OK ] Reached target Network.
[ 183.824988] cloud-init[984]: Cloud-init v. 0.7.7 running ‘init’ at Tue, 10 May 2016 13:09:14 +0000. Up 162.17 seconds.
[ 183.856568] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++Net device info++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
[ 183.896700] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: +——–+——+—————————-+—————+——-+——————-+
[ 183.944499] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: | Device | Up | Address | Mask | Scope | Hw-Address |
[ 183.979733] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: +——–+——+—————————-+—————+——-+——————-+
[ 184.003937] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: | lo | True | 127.0.0.1 | 255.0.0.0 | . | . |
[ 184.024728] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: | lo | True | ::1/128 | . | host | . |
[ 184.040806] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: | eth0 | True | 10.0.2.15 | 255.255.255.0 | . | 52:54:00:12:34:56 |
[ 184.059981] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: | eth0 | True | fe80::5054:ff:fe12:3456/64 | . | link | 52:54:00:12:34:56 |
[ 184.076902] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: +——–+——+—————————-+—————+——-+——————-+
[ 184.096749] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: +++++++++++++++++++++++++++Route IPv4 info++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
[ 184.119901] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: +——-+————-+———-+—————+———–+——-+
[ 184.135772] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: | Route | Destination | Gateway | Genmask | Interface | Flags |
[ 184.159764] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: +——-+————-+———-+—————+———–+——-+
[ 184.183873] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: | 0 | 0.0.0.0 | 10.0.2.2 | 0.0.0.0 | eth0 | UG |
[ 184.221910] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: | 1 | 10.0.2.0 | 0.0.0.0 | 255.255.255.0 | eth0 | U |
[ 184.235614] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: +——-+————-+———-+—————+———–+——-+
[ 184.251771] cloud-init[984]: Generating public/private rsa key pair.
[ 184.267717] cloud-init[984]: Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.
[ 184.287923] cloud-init[984]: Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.pub.
[ 184.299763] cloud-init[984]: The key fingerprint is:
[ 184.319922] cloud-init[984]: SHA256:5nfgM60p9uPLbYwOS9asle9xORwZn8f2w1Wn1/jxyv8 [email protected]
[ 184.347770] cloud-init[984]: The key’s randomart image is:
[ 184.368899] cloud-init[984]: +—[RSA 2048]—-+
[ 184.387884] cloud-init[984]: | |
[ 184.421722] cloud-init[984]: | |
[ 184.460441] cloud-init[984]: | . o|
[ 184.501071] cloud-init[984]: | B=|
[ 184.544642] cloud-init[984]: | S . =oO|
[ 184.575731] cloud-init[984]: | o + + ..**|
[ 184.607402] cloud-init[984]: | = Xo+ =o+|
[ 184.652524] cloud-init[984]: | ooBoOo+ o.|
[ 184.679908] cloud-init[984]: | .o=O=+ o.E|
[ 184.699730] cloud-init[984]: +—-[SHA256]—–+
[ 184.723963] cloud-init[984]: Generating public/private dsa key pair.
[ 184.747842] cloud-init[984]: Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.
[ 184.768001] cloud-init[984]: Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub.
[ 184.787953] cloud-init[984]: The key fingerprint is:
[ 184.806946] cloud-init[984]: SHA256:KzpBU/Zr4F1VzPQL/SjCTZudKOk1n4AXjCVEx8sgc8g [email protected]
[ 184.815690] cloud-init[984]: The key’s randomart image is:
[ 184.827854] cloud-init[984]: +—[DSA 1024]—-+
[ 184.855475] cloud-init[984]: | . ++.o=o |
[ 184.866056] cloud-init[984]: | o E o*o +. |
[ 184.875487] cloud-init[984]: | o . +.++o ..|
[ OK ] Started Initial cloud-init job (metadata service crawler).
[ 184.897020] cloud-init[984]: | o . …=o*.oo|
[ OK ] Reached target Network is Online.
Starting /etc/rc.local Compatibility…
[ 185.021564] cloud-init[984]: | . o oSo* @ +..|
[ 185.051657] cloud-init[984]: | . . +o = = . |
Starting iSCSI initiator daemon (iscsid)…
[ OK ] Reached target Cloud-config availability.
Starting Apply the settings specified in cloud-config…
Starting OpenBSD Secure Shell server…
[ 185.504541] cloud-init[984]: | …. . o |
[ OK ] Started /etc/rc.local Compatibility.
[ 186.110577] cloud-init[984]: | .. . |
[ 186.542021] cloud-init[984]: | .. |
[ 186.557503] cloud-init[984]: +—-[SHA256]—–+
[ 186.585582] cloud-init[984]: Generating public/private ecdsa key pair.
[ 186.609651] cloud-init[984]: Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ecdsa_key.
[ 186.625636] cloud-init[984]: Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ecdsa_key.pub.
[ 186.657904] cloud-init[984]: The key fingerprint is:
[ 186.801267] cloud-init[984]: SHA256:8AlCHJTqwT2ZHsSrQWYCamH0IP6rI1DR9rXcGPckoms [email protected]
[ 186.909225] cloud-init[984]: The key’s randomart image is:
[ 187.041113] cloud-init[984]: +—[ECDSA 256]—+
[ 187.093113] cloud-init[984]: |== =+o |
[ 187.173249] cloud-init[984]: |* O.B + o . |
[ 187.305466] cloud-init[984]: |.O B.=o+ B + |
[ 187.461236] cloud-init[984]: |. B B.o++.. . |
[ 187.601078] cloud-init[984]: | o * o .S |
[ 187.647573] cloud-init[984]: |. o o E |
[ 187.972585] cloud-init[984]: |. . . |
[ 188.117766] cloud-init[984]: |… |
[ 188.313919] cloud-init[984]: |… |
[ 188.425282] cloud-init[984]: +—-[SHA256]—–+
[ 188.540492] cloud-init[984]: Generating public/private ed25519 key pair.
[ OK ] Started iSCSI initiator daemon (iscsid).
[ 188.655394] cloud-init[984]: Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ed25519_key.
Starting Login to default iSCSI targets…
[ 188.804741] cloud-init[984]: Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ed25519_key.pub.
[ 189.156485] cloud-init[984]: The key fingerprint is:
[ 189.274441] cloud-init[984]: SHA256:1nftC58SMDp4u2HEzdOJT0TQNGvLqgv2INuYUBnlgAs [email protected]
[ 189.362913] cloud-init[984]: The key’s randomart image is:
[ 189.410176] cloud-init[984]: +–[ED25519 256]–+
[ 189.821593] cloud-init[984]: | .. . .++ |
[ 189.965319] cloud-init[984]: | E . + ..o |
[ 190.016843] cloud-init[984]: | . .. . + |
[ 190.084884] cloud-init[984]: | . o ..oo* o. |
[ 190.137893] cloud-init[984]: | o Soo=+*. .|
[ 190.235385] cloud-init[984]: | . o.+ .=o . |
[ 190.504702] cloud-init[984]: | . . +.oo. o. .|
[ 190.680403] cloud-init[984]: | . B =.o .o o|
[ OK ] Started OpenBSD Secure Shell server.
[ 190.832058] cloud-init[984]: | + . =o .+ |
[ 190.897369] cloud-init[984]: +—-[SHA256]—–+
[ OK ] Started Login to default iSCSI targets.
[ OK ] Reached target Remote File Systems (Pre).
[ OK ] Reached target Remote File Systems.
Starting LSB: automatic crash report generation…
Starting LSB: Set the CPU Frequency Scaling governor to “ondemand”…
Starting Permit User Sessions…
Starting LSB: daemon to balance interrupts for SMP systems…
[ OK ] Started Permit User Sessions.
Starting Terminate Plymouth Boot Screen…
Starting Hold until boot process finishes up…
[ OK ] Started Hold until boot process finishes up.
[ OK ] Started Serial Getty on ttyAMA0.
[ OK ] Started Getty on tty1.
[ OK ] Reached target Login Prompts.
[ OK ] Started Terminate Plymouth Boot Screen.
[ OK ] Started LSB: Set the CPU Frequency Scaling governor to “ondemand”.
[ OK ] Started LSB: daemon to balance interrupts for SMP systems.
[ OK ] Started LSB: automatic crash report generation.Ubuntu 16.04 LTS ubuntu ttyAMA0ubuntu login:

You won’t be able to login there however, so instead you can access the emulated server via ssh:

No password will be asked since we’re using an ssh key.

A few commands confirm we are indeed running Ubuntu 16.04 with Linux 4.4 on a dual core Cortex A57 processor:

I’ve also run linpack benchmark:

Emulation from x86 to ARM is affecting the results quite a bit here. For reference, a Raspberry Pi 2 achieves about 113300 KFLOPS for the same benchmark. You’ll also noticed specifically compiling for Cortex-A57 CPU improves the performance by about 10%, even in qemu.

Debian on DragonBoard 410c Development Board

May 6th, 2016 29 comments

I purchased Qualcomm DragonBoard 410c development board last year, and first tested it and run some benchmark on the 96Boards compliant hardware with Android. I found that it was still work-in-progress, and decided to wait before trying Debian on the board. I’ve now done so, and will report by experience installing Debian Linux, playing with the board, and running Phoronix benchmarks to compare it to other ARM Linux boards.

Installing Debian on DragonBoard 410c

The first challenge is to navigate through the documentation that is not always clear or up-to-date. I eventually ended up on DragonBoard 410c Wiki on Github.

DragonBoard_410c_Debian_Android_Opearting_SystemsYou then have to decided which image you want. While there are two official operating systems with Android and Debian, you can three “entities” releasiong their own images. For Debian specifically, you have the Linaro image, and Reference Platform Build (RPB) image. I could not find any changelog or known issues with the former, but the latter as its own Wiki with the latest release being RPB 16.03 (March 2016), and the next one scheduled to be RPB 16.06 in June.

That’s the current list of known issues

  • bug 285 USB host doesn’t detect any plugged devices
  • bug 121 [RPB] Cannot soft power off or shutdown db410c
  • bug 284 [RPB] Dragon board Display sleep not working
  • bug 289 [RPB] USB devices don’t work after reboot
  • bug 207 [RPB] Bluetooth does not work on Dragon board debian
  • bug 153 [RPB] Missing information about hwpack usage

USB host not working did not inspire confidence, so I first tested the Linaro image. The (other) Wiki points to the “latest version”, but the link would point to Linaro Debian 16.02 release, while I could find a more recent Linaro Debian 16.04 which I downloaded in a terminal:

I used a micro SD card to install it. If you use Windows, simply use Win32DiskImager, but in computer running Linux or in Windows via Windows subsystem for Linux, you may want to do it in the terminal. First check the SD card device with lsblk. Mine was /dev/sdb, but your may be different, and I use /dev/sdX in the command below tp flash the Debian installer to a micro SD card:

Now remove the micro SD card from your computer and insert it in to the board, set the jumper to boot from SD card on the DragonBoard 410c, and connect the power. I could see LED 1 blinking, but nothing on my HDMI TV. Last time, I did not  manage to make the serial console (requiring a 1.8V USB to TTL board or cable) using Hardkernel ODROID board, so I went to the support forums, and after several minutes of reading, I found that the RPB image is recommended, as well as a clear explanation between the Linaro and RPB images:

Use the Reference Platform Build instead of the Linaro release. The Reference Platform is an integrated build with support for multiple boards, and that is where all engineering effort is going. The Linaro build is the old single-platform image that we’re not working on anymore.

The reference platform will run on all 96boards CE (Consumer Edition) and EE (Enterprise Edition), while the Linaro image is built specifically for a given board, and they are not really working on it. [Update: This answer was specific to Hikey board, and for DragonBoard 410c there are two images provided by Qualcomm Landing Team and the Reference Platform team]

So let’s start again from scratch using the RPB image, and download the bootloader, Linux kernel and rootfs to my Ubuntu computer:

Now find a micro USB to USB cable to connect to DragonBoard 410c, install fastboot…

.. and check the device is detected:

Good. After making sure the jumper switch is set to 0000 on the board again, we can  extract the three files, and install Debian as follows:

That was a lot of commands to install the operating system… Now you can unplug the board, remove the micro USB cable, and connect the power again. After a few seconds, you should see the kernel log, and eventually LXDE desktop environment.

Click to Original Size

Click to Original Size

You’ll be asked to configure WiFi, and you’re basically done.

DragonBoard 410c Debian System Info

I’ve then run a few command to learn more about the image and system:

One of the main advantage of 96Boards should be recent Linux version,and that’s exactly what we have here with Linux 4.4 running on the board. Out of a total of 866MB reported RAM, 64MB is free, and the 6.9GB rootfs has 4.8 GB available to the user. Snapdragon 410 SoC is correctly reported as being a quad core Cortex A53 (0xd03) processor.

I used file utility to make sure a 64-bit rootfs is being used here:

Finally, there’s a bunch of modules pre-loaded on the board:

Testing Debian on DragonBoard 410c

The thing that often do not work on ARM Linux board are 3D graphics and hardware video decoding, so I’ve specifically tested these two, and also played with the pre-installed Chromium browser.

If I understand correctly the debian image comes with Freedreno open source graphics driver, and if that’s the case I have the first ever platform with working open source 3D graphics drivers:

So that means both framebuffer and X11 3D graphics acceleration are working. Nice !

I also tried to play Tuxracer as it was part of the board’s test results provided by Linaro.

It works, but it’s so slow that it’s barely playable (see video below).

I installed VLC to play 1080op h.264 videos, but based on the CPU usage the system is clearly using software decoding, and there’s no audio via HDMI. I’ve asked about those two issues on the forums about 24 hours ago, but I have yet to get a reply.

Chromium loads OK, but I did notice some freezes during use, and YouTube will struggle at full screen at 1080p, in similar way to many other low end ARM Linux platforms.

DragonBoard 410c Linux Benchmarks

Let’s install the latest version of Phoronix…

…and run some benchmarks to compare against other development boards:

After over 3 hours the results are in. Bear in mind that the board does not have heatsink, just a metallic shield, and this may affects the performance. It’s also running an OS with a 64-bit ARM rootfs, while platforms like Raspberry Pi 3 features a 64-bit processor running 32-bit code.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

I like to check John the Ripper for multi-threaded performance.

DragonBoard_410c_Phoronix_John_The_RipperWhile FLAC audio encoding is nice to single threaded performance.

DragonBoard_410c_Phoronix_FLAC

In theory the CPU performance of Snapdragon 410 and Broadcom BCM2837 (as found in RPi 3) should be equal since both are quad core Cortex A53 processors @ 1.2 GHz, but for some reasons DragonBoard 410c is a little slower in the multi-threaded benchmark, and quite faster during FLAC audio encoding likely due to software differences (Aarch64 vs Aarch32).

You can find the full results @ http://openbenchmarking.org/result/1605068-GA-1604204GA12