Posts Tagged ‘tutorial’

Updating Star Cloud PCG02U to Ubuntu 16.04 with WiFi and HDMI Audio Support

May 26th, 2016 12 comments

I completed my review of PCG02U Ubuntu TV stick a few days ago, and I was quite satisfied with the device, but since Ubuntu 16.04 was released last month, I thought it might be fun to upgrade to the latest version of Ubuntu. I’m go through the complete steps including building a new kernel for HDMI audio, and the drivers for WiFi, but you should be able to install Ubuntu 16.04 for Bay Trail and Cherry Trail processor with the image made by Linuxium and a USB stick.

Star Cloud PCG02U OS Support and Warranty

Before I go through the instructions, you may want to read the conditions on MeLE’s Aliexpress PCG02U page.

PCG02U_Linux_OS_WarningThey meant Ubuntu 14.04 instead of 14.0.4, but the important part is that if something goes wrong trying alternative OS, you may lose your warranty.

Upgrade Ubuntu 14.04 to Ubuntu 16.04

Upgrading from one LTS version to the next should be easy using the update manager…

… or doing it through the terminal entirely:

However, it did not work for me, as it quickly ended with the message:

I noticed that PCG02U was still stuck on Ubuntu 14.04.3 LTS, despite running dist-upgrade:

After trying several solutions, I eventually changed the Ubuntu mirror, and the steps above completed successfully with Ubuntu 16.04 running.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

At least two little problems though: I lost HDMI audio with only Dummy Output available, and while Ethernet was still working after the update, WiFi support was gone… But if you don’t need either you’re good to go.

Enabling HDMI audio in PCG02U

Luckily we already have the instructions to enable HDMI audio for Bay Trail and Cherry Trail processors, all we need is a Linux 4.5 kernel and patch it. I’ll do everything inside PCG02U, and I have not used a separate build machine, which would likely be faster. Tip: you’ll need gcc 4.9 or greater. I used the instruction here and there.

First let’s build the dependencies required to build the kernel in Ubuntu.

Now let’s get the patches in a working directory

as well as the Linux 4.5.1 kernel patched for Ubuntu and the Intel Atom HDMI audio support:

Now we can configure the build:

This will ask which config files to configure for AMD64, i386, ARM and so on. We only need to edit the first one (AMD64). Once you are in the config menu, use menuconfig search function to locate SUPPORT_HDMI option and enable it. Exit and save.

Before starting the build add something like “+some_string” to the end of the first version number in the debian.master/changelog> file. I added +hdmi_audio string:

You can now start the build with:

However, the build did not complete for me, with the error:

I followed the instructions on askubuntu, and disabled set do_zfs = false in debian.master/rules.d/, and completed the build with the same command line. It took around 2 to 3 to complete the build on PCG02U, and I had a bunch of deb packages…

.. and I installed the headers and image:

Rebooted the system, which booted successfully, and I could confirm HDMI audio was back. Yes!

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

But still no WiFi… and space was running now, so I did some cleaning which gave me a few gigabytes to play with:

Building Realtek RTL8723BS WiFi Driver in Ubuntu/Linux

Star Cloud PCG02U uses  a WiFi and Bluetooth module with the common Realtek RTL8723BS chip, but the driver is not currently in mainline, so it needs to be compiled separately. That part is straightforward, and only take 2 minutes or less:

That’s all and now the Wireless network is enabled:

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

I had no problems connecting to my wireless router, and the module is automatically loaded at boot time. So now we have the same level of support as in Ubuntu 14.04 with HDMI audio and WiFi.

Realtek RTL8732BS Bluetooth in Linux

However, the hardware also supports Bluetooth, so it would be nice to have this enabled too, and again RTL8723BS Linux Bluetooth driver is available thanks to one independent developer (lwfinger).

In theory, it’s pretty easy:

But this did not work for me, despite Bluetooth apparently being located on /dev/ttyS4:

But the log would show a connection timeout:

Sadly, I haven’t been able to find a solution in a reasonable amount of time, and changing the baudrate from 115200 in the script to 2764800 (as shown in dmesg) does not help.

Of course everything would be so much easier if HDMI audio Cherry Trial and Bay Trial and RTL8723BS drivers would be in mainline linux, as all you would have to do would be to install Mainline linux in Ubuntu, and everything would just work. This does require some work however, but if you are motivated, lwfinger is ready to submit the RTL8723BS WiFi code to mainline if somebody takes care of all the errors and warnings generated by

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Getting Started with Wio Link Starter Kit, Visual Programming Android App, and IFTTT

May 15th, 2016 1 comment

Wio Link is a board based on on ESP8266 WiSoC that supposed to be easy to setup thanks to Grove modules – no breadboard and mesh or wires – and, as I first understood it, to program thanks to a drag and drop mobile app that does not require any actual programming. More advanced users can also use a RESTful API in Python, JavaScript, Node.js, PHP, Objective-C or Java. I’ve been sent a $49 Wio Link Starter Kit including the board, a USB cable, and six Grove modules to evaluate the kit. I’ll start by have a look a the kit, before experimenting with Wio Link Android app.

Wio Link Starter Kit Unboxing

The kit is sent in a red plastic case.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

Wio Link board is lodged in the top covers, and other accessories placed in bags in the main part of the case.

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Click to Enlarge

Let’s check the board first.

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Click to Enlarge

There are three main ICs: ESP8266EX WiFi SoC, Silabs CP2102 USB to TTL chip for programming the board, and Winbond 25Q23BVIG serial flash memory (4MB). On the right side, the micro USB port is used for power and debugging, a header can be used for battery power, and Config and Reset buttons are present. The six Grove connectors can either take digital (3) modules, analog (1) modules, I2C (1) modules, or UART (1) modules.

The bottom side of the board does not any components, and the only noticeable parts are Seed Studio and Open Source Hardware logo, as well as which point to documentation and forums for the board.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

Once I’ve taken everything out of the small bags, we can see the fully kit content with Wio Link board, a micro USB port, and from top left to bottom right, six Grove modules and their cables: WS2812 LED strip (25 LEDs), temperature and humidity sensor, button, digital light sensor, 3-axis digital accelerometer, and a relay module.

Grove_Module_MarkingsIf you have many Grove module, it may not always be easy to know which one does what, but the Grove module is printed on the silkscreen on the back the board.

Wio Link Android App

Wio / Wio Link app is available for both Android 4.1+ and iOS 7+, and I tested the board with the Android app, following some of the instructions on the Getting Started Guide.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

The first step is to login or create an account with your email, before setting up Wio Link, or the small and soon-to-be released Wio Node.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

At this stage, I had to power Wio Link board. I did so by connecting Wio Link to one of the port my USB hub, and I noticed the red LED would blink very fast, but pressing on the Config button as instructed in the app would not do anything, and Wio Link was not detected at all. So I changed to a proper 5V/2A power supply, and the red LED was steady, with the green LED in the middle of the board slowly blinking, and after pressing the Config button for about 4 seconds, the blue TURN lit up. So if the board does not work, try another power supply. The USB cable should be OK, as it’s shipped with the board.

After that you can select Wio (WioLink_XXXXXX), select an access point (AP) to connect the board to the Internet, and give your board a name – I went with cnxwio – to complete the setup.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

Then you can select module on the bottom, the app will show you where you can drag and drop it (Digital. Analog, UART, or I2C), and then repeat the same process with the other modules.  I had the idea of making a demo reporting the temperature and humidity, while turning off the LED strip with the accelerometer, and turning it on with the button module, so I connected the four modules in the app and in “real life”.


Once you are happy with the setup, tap on Update to flash the firmware to the board. This should take a few seconds. At this stage I was expecting to be able to do some more visual programming, but all you can do is tap on API to get the API info, and experiment with the API. So rather than a complete programming solution, Wio app is an help for program development.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

The three screenshots above show the list of Wio Link boards and their connected modules, and one API call to control the LED strip, namely to make it “blink in a rainbow flow”. You can also share the API by email or other method to get the API calls on your computer and get on with programming. This is the list of API calls I got with the four modules. You can simply use the command link in a Linux computer (or now Windows Subsystem for Linux) to monitor and control the board with curl. You can also use Python or other programming languages to use the API, as show in that controls a traffic light.

But for the purpose of this review, I did not want to write code, only use graphical tools or app, so my next option was IF by IFTTT app.


Right after  you start the app, tap on the top right icon to Browse recipes, select “Create a New Recipe“, tap on “+”  (Start Here!) icon, and search for Seeed trigger. The first time you’ll be redirected to login to Seeed Studio – which the password created at the beginning of this tutorial – in your browser, and once it’s done you’ll be able to “Monitor a sensor value”, select one action related to the sensors connected to Wio Link, and complete the trigger. I wanted to detect when the button is pressed (The value should be 0 when pressed) on the Grove module. There’s a big caveat doing this, but more on that later.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

Now click Next to select the “That” step, and again search for Seeed to select one of the “Actions”, and configure it. I wanted to turn on the LED strip, and selected “light up Grove WS2812 LED strip” and “Random Rainbow”, before pressing on Finish to complete the action.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

That’s all good, except for one detail. It did not work, as pressing the button had not effect. After configuring the accelerometer to turn off the LED strip, I started to receive notifications every 2 to 5 minutes about the “shaked” status. So I went to recipe, modified it to turn on the LED when the accelerometer is shaken, and press the Check Now button to verify it, and the LED strip indeed lit up. So unless I’ve somehow missed an important option, that meant IFTTT is not suitable for my use case, because everything is handled from the cloud, and it’s not “polling” the sensors quite often enough.  However, If you want to monitor the temperature sensor, and take an action if the temperature rise above a threshold, that’s perfectly usable as long as it can be taken within a few minutes.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

As one last experiment, I set the LED strip to turn on each time I receive a new email in my gmail account. It did not work for the first email, even after waiting a few minutes (5+ minutes), and then pressing “Check Now”. So I sent another email, waited one or two minutes without results, and pressed “Check Now” again, and the LED strip finally turned on.

So the takeaway is that Wio Link app does make setting up the board easier, and also provide an easy to use reference to the API after the configuration, but it’s not a pure visual programming app per se, and you’ll need to write your own program using the RESTful API. Alternatively IFTTT app can be used to control the board using triggers from the Internet (Facebook, twitter, emails, ….) or sensors from the Grove module, and the app then take actions using the Grove modules such as relays or LED strips, but there are some limitations to what can be done, and my experience with IFTTT and Wio Link was mixed.

I’d like to thank Seeed Studio for sending Wio Link Starter Kit for evaluation. You can purchase the kit for $49 on Seeed Studio if you are interested.

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How to Run Ubuntu 16.04 Aarch64 (64-bit ARM) Cloud Images on Your Intel/AMD Linux Computer with QEMU

May 10th, 2016 4 comments

With the recent launch of several low cost Cortex A53 development boards, 64-bit ARM hardware is now pretty common and inexpensive, but if you want to run 64-bit ARM code on your x86 Linux computer, Riku Voipio, a software engineer working for Linaro, wrote some instructions to run Ubuntu 16.04 Aarch64 Cloud image in QEMU. Ubuntu cloud images are “the official Ubuntu images and are pre-installed disk images that have been customized by Ubuntu engineering to run on public clouds that provide Ubuntu Certified Images, Openstack, LXD, and more. ”  So the instructions are also useful if you want to easily try such packages on 64-bit ARM platform.


Ubuntu 16.04 with Linux 4.4 Running on a Dual Core Cortex A57 Processor in QEMU

I’ve tried those instructions myself on my Ubuntu 14.04 machine with and AMD FX8350 processor, and they worked pretty well, and the only things I had to find out by myself was to install a recent version of qemu.

First, we’ll need to install qemu & cloud-utils, and download QEMU EFI firmware  as well as the Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial server Cloud image:

The instructions require qemu-system-aarch64 version 2.5, and my system only comes with qemu 2.0.0

So I had to find a qemu ppa to install a more recent version:

I now have version 2.5:

Since the Cloud images don’t come with default username and password, they need to configured with cloud-utils. To do so, I created cloud-utils as follows:

You simply need to change the file with your username, and RSA key, which should be in ~/.ssh/ If you don’t have that file you may want to read my post  showing how to create the SSH key and login without password. Cloud config can take many arguments, including packages to install during the first boot, and you can learn all about it on Cloud-init documentation.

Now you can initialize the cloud image, and run it:

The boot until the login prompt tool about 3 minutes on my machine. Here’s the boot log:

error: no suitable video mode found.
EFI stub: Booting Linux Kernel…
EFI stub: Using DTB from configuration table
EFI stub: Exiting boot services and installing virtual address map…
[ 0.000000] Booting Linux on physical CPU 0x0
[ 0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpuset
[ 0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpu
[ 0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpuacct
[ 0.000000] Linux version 4.4.0-22-generic ([email protected]) (gcc version 5.3.1 20160413 (Ubuntu/Linaro 5.3.1-14ubuntu2) ) #39-Ubuntu SMP Thu May 5 16:54:53 UTC 2016 (Ubuntu 4.4.0-22.39-generic 4.4.8)
[ 0.000000] Boot CPU: AArch64 Processor [411fd070]
[ 0.000000] efi: Getting EFI parameters from FDT:
[ 0.000000] EFI v2.50 by EDK II
[ 0.000000] efi: SMBIOS=0x7c020000 SMBIOS 3.0=0x7bf90000 PROP=0x7f7b8d78 ACPI=0x7c040000 ACPI 2.0=0x7c040014
[ 0.000000] No NUMA configuration found
[ 0.000000] NUMA: Faking a node at [mem 0x0000000000000000-0x000000007fffffff]
[ 0.000000] NUMA: Adding memblock [0x40000000 – 0x7fffffff] on node 0
[ 0.000000] NUMA: Initmem setup node 0 [mem 0x40000000-0x7fffffff]
[ 0.000000] NUMA: NODE_DATA [mem 0x7fff2280-0x7fff3fff]
[ 0.000000] Zone ranges:
[ 0.000000] DMA [mem 0x0000000040000000-0x000000007fffffff]
[ 0.000000] Normal empty
[ 0.000000] Movable zone start for each node
[ 0.000000] Early memory node ranges
[ 0.000000] node 0: [mem 0x0000000040000000-0x000000007fffffff]
[ 0.000000] Initmem setup node 0 [mem 0x0000000040000000-0x000000007fffffff]
[ 0.000000] psci: probing for conduit method from DT.
[ 0.000000] psci: PSCIv0.2 detected in firmware.
[ 0.000000] psci: Using standard PSCI v0.2 function IDs
[ 0.000000] psci: Trusted OS migration not required
[ 0.000000] PERCPU: Embedded 17 pages/cpu @ffff80003ffc7000 s31128 r8192 d30312 u69632
[ 0.000000] Detected PIPT I-cache on CPU0
[ 0.000000] CPU features: enabling workaround for ARM erratum 832075
[ 0.000000] CPU features: enabling workaround for ARM erratum 834220
[ 0.000000] Built 1 zonelists in Node order, mobility grouping on. Total pages: 258048
[ 0.000000] Policy zone: DMA
[ 0.000000] Kernel command line: BOOT_IMAGE=/boot/vmlinuz-4.4.0-22-generic root=LABEL=cloudimg-rootfs vt.handoff=7
[ 0.000000] PID hash table entries: 4096 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)
[ 0.000000] software IO TLB [mem 0x77dc0000-0x7bdc0000] (64MB) mapped at [ffff800037dc0000-ffff80003bdbffff]
[ 0.000000] Memory: 923168K/1048576K available (8720K kernel code, 1006K rwdata, 3772K rodata, 760K init, 786K bss, 125408K reserved, 0K cma-reserved)
[ 0.000000] Virtual kernel memory layout:
[ 0.000000] vmalloc : 0xffff000000000000 – 0xffff7bffbfff0000 (126974 GB)
[ 0.000000] vmemmap : 0xffff7bffc0000000 – 0xffff7fffc0000000 ( 4096 GB maximum)
[ 0.000000] 0xffff7bffc0000000 – 0xffff7bffc1000000 ( 16 MB actual)
[ 0.000000] fixed : 0xffff7ffffa7fd000 – 0xffff7ffffac00000 ( 4108 KB)
[ 0.000000] PCI I/O : 0xffff7ffffae00000 – 0xffff7ffffbe00000 ( 16 MB)
[ 0.000000] modules : 0xffff7ffffc000000 – 0xffff800000000000 ( 64 MB)
[ 0.000000] memory : 0xffff800000000000 – 0xffff800040000000 ( 1024 MB)
[ 0.000000] .init : 0xffff800000cb5000 – 0xffff800000d73000 ( 760 KB)
[ 0.000000] .text : 0xffff800000080000 – 0xffff800000cb5000 ( 12500 KB)
[ 0.000000] .data : 0xffff800000d84000 – 0xffff800000e7fa00 ( 1007 KB)
[ 0.000000] SLUB: HWalign=64, Order=0-3, MinObjects=0, CPUs=2, Nodes=1
[ 0.000000] Hierarchical RCU implementation.
[ 0.000000] Build-time adjustment of leaf fanout to 64.
[ 0.000000] RCU restricting CPUs from NR_CPUS=128 to nr_cpu_ids=2.
[ 0.000000] RCU: Adjusting geometry for rcu_fanout_leaf=64, nr_cpu_ids=2
[ 0.000000] NR_IRQS:64 nr_irqs:64 0
[ 0.000000] GICv2m: range[0x8020000:0x8020fff], SPI[80:144]
[ 0.000000] Architected cp15 timer(s) running at 62.50MHz (virt).
[ 0.000000] clocksource: arch_sys_counter: mask: 0xffffffffffffff max_cycles: 0x1cd42e208c, max_idle_ns: 881590405314 ns
[ 0.000135] sched_clock: 56 bits at 62MHz, resolution 16ns, wraps every 4398046511096ns
[ 0.006123] vt handoff: transparent VT on vt#7
[ 0.006565] Console: colour dummy device 80×25
[ 0.007325] console [tty0] enabled
[ 0.008449] Calibrating delay loop (skipped), value calculated using timer frequency.. 125.00 BogoMIPS (lpj=250000)
[ 0.008599] pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
[ 0.009541] Security Framework initialized
[ 0.009610] Yama: becoming mindful.
[ 0.011833] AppArmor: AppArmor initialized
[ 0.015594] Dentry cache hash table entries: 131072 (order: 8, 1048576 bytes)
[ 0.017840] Inode-cache hash table entries: 65536 (order: 7, 524288 bytes)
[ 0.018889] Mount-cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[ 0.018992] Mountpoint-cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[ 0.029386] Initializing cgroup subsys io
[ 0.029795] Initializing cgroup subsys memory
[ 0.030134] Initializing cgroup subsys devices
[ 0.030245] Initializing cgroup subsys freezer
[ 0.030346] Initializing cgroup subsys net_cls
[ 0.030421] Initializing cgroup subsys perf_event
[ 0.030490] Initializing cgroup subsys net_prio
[ 0.030574] Initializing cgroup subsys hugetlb
[ 0.030676] Initializing cgroup subsys pids
[ 0.031176] ftrace: allocating 30291 entries in 119 pages
[ 0.725663] Remapping and enabling EFI services.
[ 0.726171] EFI remap 0x0000000004000000 => 0000000040000000
[ 0.726421] EFI remap 0x0000000009010000 => 0000000044000000
[ 0.726500] EFI remap 0x000000007be40000 => 0000000044010000
[ 0.726557] EFI remap 0x000000007bea0000 => 0000000044070000
[ 0.726576] EFI remap 0x000000007beb0000 => 0000000044080000
[ 0.726597] EFI remap 0x000000007bf30000 => 0000000044100000
[ 0.726615] EFI remap 0x000000007bf40000 => 0000000044110000
[ 0.726632] EFI remap 0x000000007bf50000 => 0000000044120000
[ 0.726656] EFI remap 0x000000007c020000 => 00000000441d0000
[ 0.726673] EFI remap 0x000000007c050000 => 00000000441e0000
[ 0.726689] EFI remap 0x000000007c060000 => 00000000441f0000
[ 0.726706] EFI remap 0x000000007c070000 => 0000000044200000
[ 0.726771] EFI remap 0x000000007c0f0000 => 0000000044280000
[ 0.726802] EFI remap 0x000000007c100000 => 0000000044290000
[ 0.726819] EFI remap 0x000000007c110000 => 00000000442a0000
[ 0.726842] EFI remap 0x000000007c1e0000 => 0000000044370000
[ 0.726858] EFI remap 0x000000007c1f0000 => 0000000044380000
[ 0.726876] EFI remap 0x000000007c200000 => 0000000044390000
[ 0.726951] EFI remap 0x000000007c280000 => 0000000044410000
[ 0.726981] EFI remap 0x000000007c290000 => 0000000044420000
[ 0.726998] EFI remap 0x000000007c2a0000 => 0000000044430000
[ 0.727016] EFI remap 0x000000007f5b0000 => 0000000044460000
[ 0.727036] EFI remap 0x000000007f600000 => 00000000444b0000
[ 0.727053] EFI remap 0x000000007f610000 => 00000000444c0000
[ 0.727071] EFI remap 0x000000007f650000 => 00000000444f0000
[ 0.727618] ASID allocator initialised with 65536 entries
[ 0.746070] Detected PIPT I-cache on CPU1
[ 0.747515] CPU1: Booted secondary processor [411fd070]
[ 0.749129] Brought up 2 CPUs
[ 0.749201] SMP: Total of 2 processors activated.
[ 0.749430] CPU: All CPU(s) started at EL1
[ 0.750222] alternatives: patching kernel code
[ 0.766144] devtmpfs: initialized
[ 0.775039] evm: security.selinux
[ 0.775075] evm: security.SMACK64
[ 0.775089] evm: security.SMACK64EXEC
[ 0.775102] evm: security.SMACK64TRANSMUTE
[ 0.775116] evm: security.SMACK64MMAP
[ 0.775129] evm: security.ima
[ 0.775142] evm: security.capability
[ 0.778658] SMBIOS 3.0.0 present.
[ 0.779858] clocksource: jiffies: mask: 0xffffffff max_cycles: 0xffffffff, max_idle_ns: 7645041785100000 ns
[ 0.782640] pinctrl core: initialized pinctrl subsystem
[ 0.794894] NET: Registered protocol family 16
[ 0.810548] cpuidle: using governor ladder
[ 0.823124] cpuidle: using governor menu
[ 0.823790] vdso: 2 pages (1 code @ ffff800000d89000, 1 data @ ffff800000d88000)
[ 0.824292] hw-breakpoint: found 6 breakpoint and 4 watchpoint registers.
[ 0.826321] DMA: preallocated 256 KiB pool for atomic allocations
[ 0.827846] Serial: AMBA PL011 UART driver
[ 0.855107] 9000000.pl011: ttyAMA0 at MMIO 0x9000000 (irq = 37, base_baud = 0) is a PL011 rev1
[ 0.893760] console [ttyAMA0] enabled
[ 0.946328] ACPI: Interpreter disabled.
[ 0.949605] vgaarb: loaded
[ 0.955849] SCSI subsystem initialized
[ 0.958552] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbfs
[ 0.959246] usbcore: registered new interface driver hub
[ 0.959790] usbcore: registered new device driver usb
[ 0.971932] NetLabel: Initializing
[ 0.972153] NetLabel: domain hash size = 128
[ 0.972377] NetLabel: protocols = UNLABELED CIPSOv4
[ 0.973808] NetLabel: unlabeled traffic allowed by default
[ 0.976092] clocksource: Switched to clocksource arch_sys_counter
[ 1.099009] AppArmor: AppArmor Filesystem Enabled
[ 1.100738] pnp: PnP ACPI: disabled
[ 1.149920] NET: Registered protocol family 2
[ 1.157502] TCP established hash table entries: 8192 (order: 4, 65536 bytes)
[ 1.158260] TCP bind hash table entries: 8192 (order: 5, 131072 bytes)
[ 1.158865] TCP: Hash tables configured (established 8192 bind 8192)
[ 1.160369] UDP hash table entries: 512 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[ 1.160845] UDP-Lite hash table entries: 512 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[ 1.162945] NET: Registered protocol family 1
[ 1.169176] Trying to unpack rootfs image as initramfs…
[ 38.466085] Freeing initrd memory: 20908K (ffff80002a69a000 – ffff80002bb05000)
[ 38.467445] kvm [1]: HYP mode not available
[ 38.471688] futex hash table entries: 512 (order: 4, 65536 bytes)
[ 38.472992] audit: initializing netlink subsys (disabled)
[ 38.474139] audit: type=2000 audit(37.848:1): initialized
[ 38.480527] Initialise system trusted keyring
[ 38.485484] HugeTLB registered 2 MB page size, pre-allocated 0 pages
[ 38.510331] zbud: loaded
[ 38.516406] VFS: Disk quotas dquot_6.6.0
[ 38.517291] VFS: Dquot-cache hash table entries: 512 (order 0, 4096 bytes)
[ 38.528806] fuse init (API version 7.23)
[ 38.532598] Key type big_key registered
[ 38.533202] Allocating IMA MOK and blacklist keyrings.
[ 38.546907] Key type asymmetric registered
[ 38.547225] Asymmetric key parser ‘x509’ registered
[ 38.548522] Block layer SCSI generic (bsg) driver version 0.4 loaded (major 249)
[ 38.549875] io scheduler noop registered
[ 38.550151] io scheduler deadline registered (default)
[ 38.551097] io scheduler cfq registered
[ 38.557770] pci_hotplug: PCI Hot Plug PCI Core version: 0.5
[ 38.558156] pciehp: PCI Express Hot Plug Controller Driver version: 0.4
[ 38.559066] PCI host bridge [email protected] ranges:
[ 38.559706] IO 0x3eff0000..0x3effffff -> 0x00000000
[ 38.560395] MEM 0x10000000..0x3efeffff -> 0x10000000
[ 38.560672] MEM 0x8000000000..0xffffffffff -> 0x8000000000
[ 38.563045] pci-host-generic 3f000000.pcie: PCI host bridge to bus 0000:00
[ 38.563709] pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [bus 00-0f]
[ 38.564346] pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [io 0x0000-0xffff]
[ 38.564681] pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [mem 0x10000000-0x3efeffff]
[ 38.565020] pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [mem 0x8000000000-0xffffffffff]
[ 38.585136] Serial: 8250/16550 driver, 32 ports, IRQ sharing enabled
[ 38.615449] msm_serial: driver initialized
[ 38.620995] Unable to detect cache hierarchy from DT for CPU 0
[ 38.681657] brd: module loaded
[ 38.707298] loop: module loaded
[ 38.744265] vdb: vdb1 vdb15
[ 38.755415] libphy: Fixed MDIO Bus: probed
[ 38.755791] tun: Universal TUN/TAP device driver, 1.6
[ 38.756571] tun: (C) 1999-2004 Max Krasnyansky <[email protected]>
[ 38.769050] PPP generic driver version 2.4.2
[ 38.772339] ehci_hcd: USB 2.0 ‘Enhanced’ Host Controller (EHCI) Driver
[ 38.772918] ehci-pci: EHCI PCI platform driver
[ 38.773577] ohci_hcd: USB 1.1 ‘Open’ Host Controller (OHCI) Driver
[ 38.774282] ohci-pci: OHCI PCI platform driver
[ 38.775318] uhci_hcd: USB Universal Host Controller Interface driver
[ 38.781025] mousedev: PS/2 mouse device common for all mice
[ 38.785156] i2c /dev entries driver
[ 38.790822] device-mapper: uevent: version 1.0.3
[ 38.793082] device-mapper: ioctl: 4.34.0-ioctl (2015-10-28) initialised: [email protected]
[ 38.795243] ledtrig-cpu: registered to indicate activity on CPUs
[ 38.795611] EFI Variables Facility v0.08 2004-May-17
[ 38.808496] NET: Registered protocol family 10
[ 38.816988] NET: Registered protocol family 17
[ 38.817611] Key type dns_resolver registered
[ 38.818458] Registered cp15_barrier emulation handler
[ 38.818815] Registered setend emulation handler
[ 38.822549] registered taskstats version 1
[ 38.823009] Loading compiled-in X.509 certificates
[ 38.833206] Loaded X.509 cert ‘Build time autogenerated kernel key: a959bfeeeafa5217003d029b713b4f3761d43036’
[ 38.834712] zswap: loaded using pool lzo/zbud
[ 38.939508] Key type trusted registered
[ 39.135319] Key type encrypted registered
[ 39.135696] AppArmor: AppArmor sha1 policy hashing enabled
[ 39.136679] ima: No TPM chip found, activating TPM-bypass!
[ 39.138753] evm: HMAC attrs: 0x1
[ 39.141193] hctosys: unable to open rtc device (rtc0)
[ 39.146796] uart-pl011 9000000.pl011: no DMA platform data
[ 39.194827] Freeing unused kernel memory: 760K (ffff800000cb5000 – ffff800000d73000)
[ 39.195339] Freeing alternatives memory: 48K (ffff800000d73000 – ffff800000d7f000)
Loading, please wait…
starting version 229
[ 39.750435] random: systemd-udevd urandom read with 1 bits of entropy available
Begin: Loading essential drivers … [ 46.415344] md: linear personality registered for level -1
[ 46.515772] md: multipath personality registered for level -4
[ 46.620934] md: raid0 personality registered for level 0
[ 46.726240] md: raid1 personality registered for level 1
[ 46.926037] raid6: int64x1 gen() 474 MB/s
[ 46.992135] raid6: int64x1 xor() 397 MB/s
[ 47.060108] raid6: int64x2 gen() 892 MB/s
[ 47.128118] raid6: int64x2 xor() 588 MB/s
[ 47.196003] raid6: int64x4 gen() 1156 MB/s
[ 47.264122] raid6: int64x4 xor() 777 MB/s
[ 47.332052] raid6: int64x8 gen() 538 MB/s
[ 47.400093] raid6: int64x8 xor() 450 MB/s
[ 47.468291] raid6: neonx1 gen() 330 MB/s
[ 47.536209] raid6: neonx1 xor() 189 MB/s
[ 47.604233] raid6: neonx2 gen() 398 MB/s
[ 47.672095] raid6: neonx2 xor() 163 MB/s
[ 47.740157] raid6: neonx4 gen() 440 MB/s
[ 47.808224] raid6: neonx4 xor() 238 MB/s
[ 47.876048] raid6: neonx8 gen() 385 MB/s
[ 47.944072] raid6: neonx8 xor() 230 MB/s
[ 47.944350] raid6: using algorithm int64x4 gen() 1156 MB/s
[ 47.944628] raid6: …. xor() 777 MB/s, rmw enabled
[ 47.944939] raid6: using intx1 recovery algorithm
[ 47.952791] xor: measuring software checksum speed
[ 47.996241] 8regs : 1440.000 MB/sec
[ 48.036207] 8regs_prefetch: 1445.000 MB/sec
[ 48.076186] 32regs : 1336.000 MB/sec
[ 48.116043] 32regs_prefetch: 1343.000 MB/sec
[ 48.116350] xor: using function: 8regs_prefetch (1445.000 MB/sec)
[ 48.123591] async_tx: api initialized (async)
[ 48.216579] md: raid6 personality registered for level 6
[ 48.216952] md: raid5 personality registered for level 5
[ 48.217259] md: raid4 personality registered for level 4
[ 48.475262] md: raid10 personality registered for level 10
Begin: Running /scripts/init-premount … done.
Begin: Mounting root file system … Begin: Running /scripts/local-top … done.
Begin: Running /scripts/local-premount … [ 49.365334] Btrfs loaded
Scanning for Btrfs filesystems
Warning: fsck not present, so skipping root file system
[ 50.489875] EXT4-fs (vdb1): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. Opts: (null)
Begin: Running /scripts/local-bottom … done.
Begin: Running /scripts/init-bottom … Warning: overlayroot: debug is busted
[ 52.425729] systemd[1]: System time before build time, advancing clock.
[ 52.602459] systemd[1]: Detected virtualization qemu.
[ 52.602901] systemd[1]: Detected architecture arm64.Welcome to Ubuntu 16.04 LTS![ 52.615513] systemd[1]: Set hostname to .
[ 52.631062] systemd[1]: Initializing machine ID from random generator.
[ 52.633892] systemd[1]: Installed transient /etc/machine-id file.
[ 54.777420] systemd[1]: Created slice System Slice.
[ OK ] Created slice System Slice.
[ 54.787015] systemd[1]: Created slice system-getty.slice.
[ OK ] Created slice system-getty.slice.
[ 54.791265] systemd[1]: Listening on Journal Socket.
[ OK ] Listening on Journal Socket.
[ 54.827391] systemd[1]: Starting Create list of required static device nodes for the current kernel…
Starting Create list of required st… nodes for the current kernel…
[ 54.839431] systemd[1]: Reached target User and Group Name Lookups.
[ OK ] Reached target User and Group Name Lookups.
[ 54.900677] systemd[1]: Listening on Journal Audit Socket.
[ OK ] Listening on Journal Audit Socket.
[ 54.937520] systemd[1]: Listening on Syslog Socket.
[ OK ] Listening on Syslog Socket.
[ 55.061147] systemd[1]: Mounting Debug File System…
Mounting Debug File System…
[ 55.125920] systemd[1]: Created slice system-serial\x2dgetty.slice.
[ OK ] Created slice system-serial\x2dgetty.slice.
[ 55.130335] systemd[1]: Listening on udev Control Socket.
[ OK ] Listening on udev Control Socket.
[ 55.166043] systemd[1]: Listening on /dev/initctl Compatibility Named Pipe.
[ OK ] Listening on /dev/initctl Compatibility Named Pipe.
[ 55.203000] systemd[1]: Created slice User and Session Slice.
[ OK ] Created slice User and Session Slice.
[ 55.230696] systemd[1]: Started Forward Password Requests to Wall Directory Watch.
[ OK ] Started Forward Password Requests to Wall Directory Watch.
[ 55.270726] systemd[1]: Starting Uncomplicated firewall…
Starting Uncomplicated firewall…
[ 55.302712] systemd[1]: Set up automount Arbitrary Executable File Formats File System Automount Point.
[ OK ] Set up automount Arbitrary Executab…ats File System Automount Point.
[ 55.342570] systemd[1]: Listening on LVM2 metadata daemon socket.
[ OK ] Listening on LVM2 metadata daemon socket.
[ 55.437727] systemd[1]: Mounting Huge Pages File System…
Mounting Huge Pages File System…
[ 55.478207] systemd[1]: Reached target Swap.
[ OK ] Reached target Swap.
[ 55.505859] systemd[1]: Reached target Slices.
[ OK ] Reached target Slices.
[ 55.653438] systemd[1]: Mounting POSIX Message Queue File System…
Mounting POSIX Message Queue File System…
[ 55.671273] systemd[1]: Reached target Encrypted Volumes.
[ OK ] Reached target Encrypted Volumes.
[ 55.826639] systemd[1]: Starting Remount Root and Kernel File Systems…
Starting Remount Root and Kernel File Systems…
[ 55.895229] systemd[1]: Listening on Journal Socket (/dev/log).
[ OK ] Listening on Journal Socket (/dev/log).
[ 55.978436] systemd[1]: Listening on Device-mapper event daemon FIFOs.
[ OK ] Listening on Device-mapper event daemon FIFOs.
[ 56.039144] systemd[1]: Listening on udev Kernel Socket.
[ OK ] Listening on udev Kernel Socket.
[ 56.338358] systemd[1]: Starting Load Kernel Modules…
Starting Load Kernel Modules…
[ 56.393745] systemd[1]: Listening on LVM2 poll daemon socket.
[ OK ] Listening on LVM2 poll daemon socket.
[ 56.554266] systemd[1]: Starting Nameserver information manager…
Starting Nameserver information manager…
[ 56.634591] systemd[1]: Starting Monitoring of LVM2 mirrors, snapshots etc. using dmeventd or progress polling…
Starting Monitoring of LVM2 mirrors… dmeventd or progress polling…
[ 56.742477] systemd[1]: Starting Journal Service…
Starting Journal Service…
[ 57.001027] systemd[1]: Mounted POSIX Message Queue File System.
[ OK ] Mounted POSIX Message Queue File System.
[ 57.064715] systemd[1]: Mounted Debug File System.
[ OK ] Mounted Debug File System.
[ 57.101124] systemd[1]: Mounted Huge Pages File System.
[ OK ] Mounted Huge Pages File System.
[ 57.227288] systemd[1]: Started Create list of required static device nodes for the current kernel.
[ OK ] Started Create list of required sta…ce nodes for the current kernel.
[ 57.258454] systemd[1]: Started Uncomplicated firewall.
[ OK ] Started Uncomplicated firewall.
[ 57.304651] EXT4-fs (vdb1): re-mounted. Opts: (null)
[ 57.527628] systemd[1]: Started Remount Root and Kernel File Systems.
[ OK ] Started Remount Root and Kernel File Systems.
[ 58.358611] systemd[1]: Started Nameserver information manager.
[ OK ] Started Nameserver information manager.
[ 59.850589] Loading iSCSI transport class v2.0-870.
[ 60.059388] systemd[1]: Started LVM2 metadata daemon.
[ OK ] Started LVM2 metadata daemon.
[ 60.205315] systemd[1]: Starting Load/Save Random Seed…
Starting Load/Save Random Seed…
[ 60.467673] iscsi: registered transport (tcp)
[ 60.479537] systemd[1]: Starting udev Coldplug all Devices…
Starting udev Coldplug all Devices…
[ 60.566825] systemd[1]: Starting Create Static Device Nodes in /dev…
Starting Create Static Device Nodes in /dev…
[ 60.630029] systemd[1]: Started Journal Service.
[ OK ] Started Journal Service.
Starting Flush Journal to Persistent Storage…
[ OK ] Started Load/Save Random Seed.
[ 62.065118] systemd-journald[368]: Received request to flush runtime journal from PID 1
[ OK ] Started Flush Journal to Persistent Storage.
[ 62.627589] iscsi: registered transport (iser)
[ OK ] Started Load Kernel Modules.
[ OK ] Started Monitoring of LVM2 mirrors,…ng dmeventd or progress polling.
Starting Apply Kernel Variables…
Mounting FUSE Control File System…
[ OK ] Mounted FUSE Control File System.
[ OK ] Started Create Static Device Nodes in /dev.
Starting udev Kernel Device Manager…
[ OK ] Started Apply Kernel Variables.
[ OK ] Started udev Coldplug all Devices.
[ OK ] Started udev Kernel Device Manager.
[ OK ] Reached target Local File Systems (Pre).
[ OK ] Started Dispatch Password Requests to Console Directory Watch.
[ OK ] Found device /dev/ttyAMA0.
[ OK ] Found device /dev/disk/by-label/UEFI.
Mounting /boot/efi…
[ OK ] Mounted /boot/efi.
[ OK ] Reached target Local File Systems.
Starting Initial cloud-init job (pre-networking)…
Starting Tell Plymouth To Write Out Runtime Data…
Starting Set console keymap…
Starting Create Volatile Files and Directories…
Starting LSB: AppArmor initialization…
Starting Commit a transient machine-id on disk…
[ OK ] Started Tell Plymouth To Write Out Runtime Data.
[FAILED] Failed to start Set console keymap.
See ‘systemctl status console-setup.service’ for details.
[ OK ] Started Commit a transient machine-id on disk.
[ OK ] Listening on Load/Save RF Kill Switch Status /dev/rfkill Watch.
[ OK ] Started Create Volatile Files and Directories.
Starting Network Time Synchronization…
Starting Update UTMP about System Boot/Shutdown…
[ OK ] Started Update UTMP about System Boot/Shutdown.
[ OK ] Started Network Time Synchronization.
[ OK ] Reached target System Time Synchronized.
[ OK ] Started LSB: AppArmor initialization.
[ OK ] Reached target System Initialization.
[ OK ] Started Trigger resolvconf update for networkd DNS.
[ OK ] Listening on ACPID Listen Socket.
[ OK ] Listening on D-Bus System Message Bus Socket.
Starting Socket activation for snappy daemon.
Starting Seed the pseudo random number generator on first boot…
Starting LXD – unix socket.
[ OK ] Started Daily Cleanup of Temporary Directories.
[ OK ] Started Daily apt activities.
[ OK ] Reached target Timers.
[ OK ] Listening on UUID daemon activation socket.
[ OK ] Started ACPI Events Check.
[ OK ] Reached target Paths.
[ OK ] Listening on Socket activation for snappy daemon.
[ OK ] Listening on LXD – unix socket.
[ OK ] Reached target Sockets.
[ OK ] Reached target Basic System.
Starting LXD – container startup/shutdown…
[ OK ] Started Deferred execution scheduler.
[ OK ] Started Regular background program processing daemon.
[ OK ] Started D-Bus System Message Bus.
[ OK ] Started ACPI event daemon.
Starting System Logging Service…
Starting Login Service…
Starting Accounts Service…
[ OK ] Started FUSE filesystem for LXC.
Starting LSB: Record successful boot for GRUB…
Starting LSB: MD monitoring daemon…
[ OK ] Started Login Service.
[ OK ] Started System Logging Service.
Starting Authenticate and Authorize Users to Run Privileged Tasks…
[ OK ] Started LSB: Record successful boot for GRUB.
[ OK ] Started LSB: MD monitoring daemon.
[ OK ] Started Authenticate and Authorize Users to Run Privileged Tasks.
[ OK ] Started Accounts Service.
[ OK ] Started Seed the pseudo random number generator on first boot.
[ OK ] Started LXD – container startup/shutdown.
[ 137.551732] cloud-init[502]: Cloud-init v. 0.7.7 running ‘init-local’ at Thu, 11 Feb 2016 16:29:14 +0000. Up 126.47 seconds.
[ OK ] Started Initial cloud-init job (pre-networking).
[ OK ] Reached target Network (Pre).
Starting Raise network interfaces…
[ OK ] Started Raise network interfaces.
Starting Initial cloud-init job (metadata service crawler)…
[ OK ] Reached target Network.
[ 183.824988] cloud-init[984]: Cloud-init v. 0.7.7 running ‘init’ at Tue, 10 May 2016 13:09:14 +0000. Up 162.17 seconds.
[ 183.856568] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++Net device info++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
[ 183.896700] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: +——–+——+—————————-+—————+——-+——————-+
[ 183.944499] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: | Device | Up | Address | Mask | Scope | Hw-Address |
[ 183.979733] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: +——–+——+—————————-+—————+——-+——————-+
[ 184.003937] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: | lo | True | | | . | . |
[ 184.024728] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: | lo | True | ::1/128 | . | host | . |
[ 184.040806] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: | eth0 | True | | | . | 52:54:00:12:34:56 |
[ 184.059981] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: | eth0 | True | fe80::5054:ff:fe12:3456/64 | . | link | 52:54:00:12:34:56 |
[ 184.076902] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: +——–+——+—————————-+—————+——-+——————-+
[ 184.096749] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: +++++++++++++++++++++++++++Route IPv4 info++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
[ 184.119901] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: +——-+————-+———-+—————+———–+——-+
[ 184.135772] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: | Route | Destination | Gateway | Genmask | Interface | Flags |
[ 184.159764] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: +——-+————-+———-+—————+———–+——-+
[ 184.183873] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: | 0 | | | | eth0 | UG |
[ 184.221910] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: | 1 | | | | eth0 | U |
[ 184.235614] cloud-init[984]: ci-info: +——-+————-+———-+—————+———–+——-+
[ 184.251771] cloud-init[984]: Generating public/private rsa key pair.
[ 184.267717] cloud-init[984]: Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.
[ 184.287923] cloud-init[984]: Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/
[ 184.299763] cloud-init[984]: The key fingerprint is:
[ 184.319922] cloud-init[984]: SHA256:5nfgM60p9uPLbYwOS9asle9xORwZn8f2w1Wn1/jxyv8 [email protected]
[ 184.347770] cloud-init[984]: The key’s randomart image is:
[ 184.368899] cloud-init[984]: +—[RSA 2048]—-+
[ 184.387884] cloud-init[984]: | |
[ 184.421722] cloud-init[984]: | |
[ 184.460441] cloud-init[984]: | . o|
[ 184.501071] cloud-init[984]: | B=|
[ 184.544642] cloud-init[984]: | S . =oO|
[ 184.575731] cloud-init[984]: | o + + ..**|
[ 184.607402] cloud-init[984]: | = Xo+ =o+|
[ 184.652524] cloud-init[984]: | ooBoOo+ o.|
[ 184.679908] cloud-init[984]: | .o=O=+ o.E|
[ 184.699730] cloud-init[984]: +—-[SHA256]—–+
[ 184.723963] cloud-init[984]: Generating public/private dsa key pair.
[ 184.747842] cloud-init[984]: Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.
[ 184.768001] cloud-init[984]: Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/
[ 184.787953] cloud-init[984]: The key fingerprint is:
[ 184.806946] cloud-init[984]: SHA256:KzpBU/Zr4F1VzPQL/SjCTZudKOk1n4AXjCVEx8sgc8g [email protected]
[ 184.815690] cloud-init[984]: The key’s randomart image is:
[ 184.827854] cloud-init[984]: +—[DSA 1024]—-+
[ 184.855475] cloud-init[984]: | . ++.o=o |
[ 184.866056] cloud-init[984]: | o E o*o +. |
[ 184.875487] cloud-init[984]: | o . +.++o ..|
[ OK ] Started Initial cloud-init job (metadata service crawler).
[ 184.897020] cloud-init[984]: | o . …=o*.oo|
[ OK ] Reached target Network is Online.
Starting /etc/rc.local Compatibility…
[ 185.021564] cloud-init[984]: | . o oSo* @ +..|
[ 185.051657] cloud-init[984]: | . . +o = = . |
Starting iSCSI initiator daemon (iscsid)…
[ OK ] Reached target Cloud-config availability.
Starting Apply the settings specified in cloud-config…
Starting OpenBSD Secure Shell server…
[ 185.504541] cloud-init[984]: | …. . o |
[ OK ] Started /etc/rc.local Compatibility.
[ 186.110577] cloud-init[984]: | .. . |
[ 186.542021] cloud-init[984]: | .. |
[ 186.557503] cloud-init[984]: +—-[SHA256]—–+
[ 186.585582] cloud-init[984]: Generating public/private ecdsa key pair.
[ 186.609651] cloud-init[984]: Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ecdsa_key.
[ 186.625636] cloud-init[984]: Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/
[ 186.657904] cloud-init[984]: The key fingerprint is:
[ 186.801267] cloud-init[984]: SHA256:8AlCHJTqwT2ZHsSrQWYCamH0IP6rI1DR9rXcGPckoms [email protected]
[ 186.909225] cloud-init[984]: The key’s randomart image is:
[ 187.041113] cloud-init[984]: +—[ECDSA 256]—+
[ 187.093113] cloud-init[984]: |== =+o |
[ 187.173249] cloud-init[984]: |* O.B + o . |
[ 187.305466] cloud-init[984]: |.O B.=o+ B + |
[ 187.461236] cloud-init[984]: |. B B.o++.. . |
[ 187.601078] cloud-init[984]: | o * o .S |
[ 187.647573] cloud-init[984]: |. o o E |
[ 187.972585] cloud-init[984]: |. . . |
[ 188.117766] cloud-init[984]: |… |
[ 188.313919] cloud-init[984]: |… |
[ 188.425282] cloud-init[984]: +—-[SHA256]—–+
[ 188.540492] cloud-init[984]: Generating public/private ed25519 key pair.
[ OK ] Started iSCSI initiator daemon (iscsid).
[ 188.655394] cloud-init[984]: Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ed25519_key.
Starting Login to default iSCSI targets…
[ 188.804741] cloud-init[984]: Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/
[ 189.156485] cloud-init[984]: The key fingerprint is:
[ 189.274441] cloud-init[984]: SHA256:1nftC58SMDp4u2HEzdOJT0TQNGvLqgv2INuYUBnlgAs [email protected]
[ 189.362913] cloud-init[984]: The key’s randomart image is:
[ 189.410176] cloud-init[984]: +–[ED25519 256]–+
[ 189.821593] cloud-init[984]: | .. . .++ |
[ 189.965319] cloud-init[984]: | E . + ..o |
[ 190.016843] cloud-init[984]: | . .. . + |
[ 190.084884] cloud-init[984]: | . o ..oo* o. |
[ 190.137893] cloud-init[984]: | o Soo=+*. .|
[ 190.235385] cloud-init[984]: | . o.+ .=o . |
[ 190.504702] cloud-init[984]: | . . +.oo. o. .|
[ 190.680403] cloud-init[984]: | . B =.o .o o|
[ OK ] Started OpenBSD Secure Shell server.
[ 190.832058] cloud-init[984]: | + . =o .+ |
[ 190.897369] cloud-init[984]: +—-[SHA256]—–+
[ OK ] Started Login to default iSCSI targets.
[ OK ] Reached target Remote File Systems (Pre).
[ OK ] Reached target Remote File Systems.
Starting LSB: automatic crash report generation…
Starting LSB: Set the CPU Frequency Scaling governor to “ondemand”…
Starting Permit User Sessions…
Starting LSB: daemon to balance interrupts for SMP systems…
[ OK ] Started Permit User Sessions.
Starting Terminate Plymouth Boot Screen…
Starting Hold until boot process finishes up…
[ OK ] Started Hold until boot process finishes up.
[ OK ] Started Serial Getty on ttyAMA0.
[ OK ] Started Getty on tty1.
[ OK ] Reached target Login Prompts.
[ OK ] Started Terminate Plymouth Boot Screen.
[ OK ] Started LSB: Set the CPU Frequency Scaling governor to “ondemand”.
[ OK ] Started LSB: daemon to balance interrupts for SMP systems.
[ OK ] Started LSB: automatic crash report generation.Ubuntu 16.04 LTS ubuntu ttyAMA0ubuntu login:

You won’t be able to login there however, so instead you can access the emulated server via ssh:

No password will be asked since we’re using an ssh key.

A few commands confirm we are indeed running Ubuntu 16.04 with Linux 4.4 on a dual core Cortex A57 processor:

I’ve also run linpack benchmark:

Emulation from x86 to ARM is affecting the results quite a bit here. For reference, a Raspberry Pi 2 achieves about 113300 KFLOPS for the same benchmark. You’ll also noticed specifically compiling for Cortex-A57 CPU improves the performance by about 10%, even in qemu.

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Debian on DragonBoard 410c Development Board

May 6th, 2016 29 comments

I purchased Qualcomm DragonBoard 410c development board last year, and first tested it and run some benchmark on the 96Boards compliant hardware with Android. I found that it was still work-in-progress, and decided to wait before trying Debian on the board. I’ve now done so, and will report by experience installing Debian Linux, playing with the board, and running Phoronix benchmarks to compare it to other ARM Linux boards.

Installing Debian on DragonBoard 410c

The first challenge is to navigate through the documentation that is not always clear or up-to-date. I eventually ended up on DragonBoard 410c Wiki on Github.

DragonBoard_410c_Debian_Android_Opearting_SystemsYou then have to decided which image you want. While there are two official operating systems with Android and Debian, you can three “entities” releasiong their own images. For Debian specifically, you have the Linaro image, and Reference Platform Build (RPB) image. I could not find any changelog or known issues with the former, but the latter as its own Wiki with the latest release being RPB 16.03 (March 2016), and the next one scheduled to be RPB 16.06 in June.

That’s the current list of known issues

  • bug 285 USB host doesn’t detect any plugged devices
  • bug 121 [RPB] Cannot soft power off or shutdown db410c
  • bug 284 [RPB] Dragon board Display sleep not working
  • bug 289 [RPB] USB devices don’t work after reboot
  • bug 207 [RPB] Bluetooth does not work on Dragon board debian
  • bug 153 [RPB] Missing information about hwpack usage

USB host not working did not inspire confidence, so I first tested the Linaro image. The (other) Wiki points to the “latest version”, but the link would point to Linaro Debian 16.02 release, while I could find a more recent Linaro Debian 16.04 which I downloaded in a terminal:

I used a micro SD card to install it. If you use Windows, simply use Win32DiskImager, but in computer running Linux or in Windows via Windows subsystem for Linux, you may want to do it in the terminal. First check the SD card device with lsblk. Mine was /dev/sdb, but your may be different, and I use /dev/sdX in the command below tp flash the Debian installer to a micro SD card:

Now remove the micro SD card from your computer and insert it in to the board, set the jumper to boot from SD card on the DragonBoard 410c, and connect the power. I could see LED 1 blinking, but nothing on my HDMI TV. Last time, I did not  manage to make the serial console (requiring a 1.8V USB to TTL board or cable) using Hardkernel ODROID board, so I went to the support forums, and after several minutes of reading, I found that the RPB image is recommended, as well as a clear explanation between the Linaro and RPB images:

Use the Reference Platform Build instead of the Linaro release. The Reference Platform is an integrated build with support for multiple boards, and that is where all engineering effort is going. The Linaro build is the old single-platform image that we’re not working on anymore.

The reference platform will run on all 96boards CE (Consumer Edition) and EE (Enterprise Edition), while the Linaro image is built specifically for a given board, and they are not really working on it. [Update: This answer was specific to Hikey board, and for DragonBoard 410c there are two images provided by Qualcomm Landing Team and the Reference Platform team]

So let’s start again from scratch using the RPB image, and download the bootloader, Linux kernel and rootfs to my Ubuntu computer:

Now find a micro USB to USB cable to connect to DragonBoard 410c, install fastboot…

.. and check the device is detected:

Good. After making sure the jumper switch is set to 0000 on the board again, we can  extract the three files, and install Debian as follows:

That was a lot of commands to install the operating system… Now you can unplug the board, remove the micro USB cable, and connect the power again. After a few seconds, you should see the kernel log, and eventually LXDE desktop environment.

Click to Original Size

Click to Original Size

You’ll be asked to configure WiFi, and you’re basically done.

DragonBoard 410c Debian System Info

I’ve then run a few command to learn more about the image and system:

One of the main advantage of 96Boards should be recent Linux version,and that’s exactly what we have here with Linux 4.4 running on the board. Out of a total of 866MB reported RAM, 64MB is free, and the 6.9GB rootfs has 4.8 GB available to the user. Snapdragon 410 SoC is correctly reported as being a quad core Cortex A53 (0xd03) processor.

I used file utility to make sure a 64-bit rootfs is being used here:

Finally, there’s a bunch of modules pre-loaded on the board:

Testing Debian on DragonBoard 410c

The thing that often do not work on ARM Linux board are 3D graphics and hardware video decoding, so I’ve specifically tested these two, and also played with the pre-installed Chromium browser.

If I understand correctly the debian image comes with Freedreno open source graphics driver, and if that’s the case I have the first ever platform with working open source 3D graphics drivers:

So that means both framebuffer and X11 3D graphics acceleration are working. Nice !

I also tried to play Tuxracer as it was part of the board’s test results provided by Linaro.

It works, but it’s so slow that it’s barely playable (see video below).

I installed VLC to play 1080op h.264 videos, but based on the CPU usage the system is clearly using software decoding, and there’s no audio via HDMI. I’ve asked about those two issues on the forums about 24 hours ago, but I have yet to get a reply.

Chromium loads OK, but I did notice some freezes during use, and YouTube will struggle at full screen at 1080p, in similar way to many other low end ARM Linux platforms.

DragonBoard 410c Linux Benchmarks

Let’s install the latest version of Phoronix…

…and run some benchmarks to compare against other development boards:

After over 3 hours the results are in. Bear in mind that the board does not have heatsink, just a metallic shield, and this may affects the performance. It’s also running an OS with a 64-bit ARM rootfs, while platforms like Raspberry Pi 3 features a 64-bit processor running 32-bit code.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

I like to check John the Ripper for multi-threaded performance.

DragonBoard_410c_Phoronix_John_The_RipperWhile FLAC audio encoding is nice to single threaded performance.


In theory the CPU performance of Snapdragon 410 and Broadcom BCM2837 (as found in RPi 3) should be equal since both are quad core Cortex A53 processors @ 1.2 GHz, but for some reasons DragonBoard 410c is a little slower in the multi-threaded benchmark, and quite faster during FLAC audio encoding likely due to software differences (Aarch64 vs Aarch32).

You can find the full results @

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How to Change Language to English and Install Apps Remotely on Xiaomi Mi Box 3 Enhanced

April 12th, 2016 31 comments

Just like other Xiaomi TV boxes the latest Xiaomi Mi Box 3 Enhanced (aka MiBox 3 Pro) comes with a Chinese only user interface, but a similar method as used for Xiaomi Mi Box Mini to change English and remotely install apps. I’ve gone through this and taken pictures and screenshots to show how to change the language.

I had connected the HDMI cable, a USB hard drive, as well as a USB keyboard and RF dongle for my airmouse and gamepad to the device, and after powering up the device, you are know some text in Chinese, you can press OK, and you’ll soon be presented with a list of WiFi access points.


Select one, and you’ll be asked to input the password for the network. However, in my case I had no connect button, and pressing OK on the remote did not work at all. It turns out connecting a hardware keyboard (or air mouse) will disable the software keyboard and the connection button.Xiaomi_Mi_Box_3_WiFi_Connection_No_Button

But at the time, I simply skipped, and that’s only later, that I discovered that disconnecting hardware input devices would allow to input the password with Xiaomi remote control and a soft keyboard, and connect to the WiFi access point by pressing the large key on the right as shown in the picture below.Xiaomi_Mi_Box_3_WiFi_Connection_Keyboard Anyway, once the boot is complete you’ll get the usual GITV user interface found in all Xiaomi TV boxes with all text in Chinese.


I upgrade the firmware via OTA (now MIUI TV 1.4.6) before completing the other steps, but the procedure should be the same if you have the previous version of the firmware. Some of screenshots and photos may just look a little different.

The trick to change the language is to access the Android Settings – not available from GITV interface – by downloading Shafa Market apk, and copying it to a USB flash drive. Now insert the flash drive in the box, and after a few short seconds, a pop-up window should appear. Select the left button, to enter the file manager.


You can see that network shares are also detected, but since I could not find how to start the file manager, I used the USB flash drive as a workaround.


Navigate to the USB drive and select 0.shafaguanjia_138.apk.


There will be a warning because third party apps installation is disabled by default due to security reasons. Again select the left button.Shafa_Market_Installation_WarningYou’ll be brought to the Android settings, and need to change the settings as shown with the highlighted line.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

Now go back, and complete the installation. Select “Open” (right button) to launch Shafa Market.

Shafa_Market_Installation_CompleteSelect 我的应用 (My Apps) on the top menu, and click on the Settings (设置) button.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

You’ll now be in the familiar Android Lollipop settings, albeit in Chinese. Select the language and input menu with a Globe icon.


Then click on the first item to change the language.Xiaomi_Mi_Box_3_Android_Settings

There are just four languages, three variants of the Chinese language, and English.Xiaomi_Mi_Box_3_Enhanced-Pro_Chinese_EnglishYou may also want to change the “current keyboard” to “English (US) – Android Keyboard (AOSP)” to avoid issues when inputting text later on.

Now if you go back to the launcher, you’ll find most items in English, except the ones that are retrieved from the  network.Xiaomi_Mi_Box_3_Enhanced_English_User_Interface

A reboot might also help making sure, all apps are aware of the change of language. If you want to install apps using apks easily, you may want to go to Shafa Market->Tools->Remote Install.


This will give you an URL to conveniently install Android apps from your web browser’s computer. Simply click on the green button, select an apk, it will be uploaded the box, where you’ll then be prompted to complete the installation.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

I’m usually downloading apk directly from Google Play store using APK downloader add-on for Firefox, but as you can see from the screenshot above I’ve also install Amazon App (Amazon Underground) to more conveniently install apps. You could also copy a bunch of apk files to an USB flash drive, and install them the same way as I did for Shafa Market.

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SmartEverything is a Feature-Packed IoT Board with SigFox, Bluetooth LE, NFC and GPS Connectivity, Plenty of Sensors

April 8th, 2016 4 comments

Atmel MCU Madness is an informal competition on Twitter where people vote for their favorite development boards. We are now at the quarter finals, and beside the usual suspects such as Raspberry Pi and ESP8266 boards, I also noticed one board that I had never heard of: AXEL Elettronica’s SmartEverything based on Atmel SAM D21 Cortex M0+ and featuring SigFox, BLE, NFC, and GPS connectivity, as well as various sensors such as humidity and temperature, 9-axis motion sensor, and so on.


SmartEverything board specifications:

  • MCU – Atmel SAM D21 ARM Cortex-M0+ MCU @ 48 MHz with 256KB Flash, 32KB SRAM
  • Connectivity
    • SIGFOX via Telit LE51-868 S SIGFOX 868 MHz Wireless Module with 12 months of network access included
    • Bluetooth 4.0 LE via  TDK SESUB-PAN-T2541 module based on Texas Instruments CC2541
    • NFC via NXP NT3H1101FHK NFC with separate antenna (included)
    • GPS/GNSS via Telit Jupiter SE868-A GPS/GNSS module with integrated antenna. Supports GPS, QZSS, GLONASS and is Galileo ready
  • Sensors
    • 3D accelerometer, 3D Gyroscope and 3D Magnetometer (ST LSM9DS1 iNEMO)
    • Humidity and temperature sensor (ST HTS221)
    • Proximity and ambient light sensor (ST VL6180X)
    • Barometer and altimeter (ST LPS25H MEMS 260-1260 hPa)
  • Security – Atmel ATSHA204A CryptoAuth Chip
  • Expansion Headers – Arduino UNO form factor
  • Debugging & programming – SWD connector for SAM-ICE and ATMEL-ICE
  • Misc – Push buttons, RGB LED
  • Power Supply – 5V via USB, battery or separate power supply
  • Dimensions – 53.34 x 68.58 mm


The board can be programmed with the Arduino IDE with all relevant libraries available on github for both communications modules and sensors, or Atmel Studio 6. It ships with a pre-installed TDK SESUB-PAN-T2541 Bluetooth module and NFC antenna, as well as SMA wireless antenna for the SigFox module.

SmartEveryThing without NFC Antenna

SmartEverything without NFC Antenna

The board has been designed by Arrow Electronics, and is now sold via RS Components for £73.43 ($103.4 US) using MCS7561 as the part number . You can find more details, including the user’s manual on SmartEverything website, or watch the 20+ minute introduction and tutorial with Atmel Studio 6 and Arduino IDE below.

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Stream Live TV to Your Computer or Smartphone with U4 Quad Hybrid Android TV Box, Kodi and TVheadend

March 25th, 2016 21 comments

TVheadend is a streaming server and recorder for Linux, FreeBSD and Android supporting DVB-S, DVB-S2, DVB-C, DVB-T, ATSC, ISDB-T, IPTV, SAT>IP and HDHomeRun as input sources, and while in theory it should be possible to configure any recent Android TV set-top box with digital TV tuners, configuration is complex, and there’s no guarantee the tuner will be recognized. However, the manufacturer of U4 Quad Hybrid has already configured their box to support HTSP clients, so I’ve installed the latest firmware, and given it a try with my Android smartphone running Kodi 15.2 with TVheadend HTSP client, and I could successfully stream live TV (DVB-T2 free-to-air channels) to my smartphone.

Once you’ve scanned the channels using DVB-T2 and/or DVB-S2, there’s no other configuration in U4 Quad Hybrid TV box, but you’ll still need to find out your IP address by going to Setup->Network, and WiFi, Ethernet or 3G depending on your chosen Internet connectivity option. My device is connected to Ethernet, and my IP is

I’m using a smartphone, but you could as well go with any device or computer that support Kodi. Currently the firmware in U4 Quad Hybrid is not compatible with Kodi 16.0, so you’ll need an earlier version, and I installed Kodi 15.2 on my phone. You can download Kodi 15.2 for Windows or Android here.

Once Kodi is installed, you can start it, and go to Settings->Add-ons->My add-ons->PVR clients, and scroll down to select TVheadend HTSP client.

Click on Configure to enter U4 Quad Hybrid IP address in “Tvheadend hostname or IP address” field, and click OK.
Kodi_HSTP_Client_ConfigurationBy default,the add-on is disabled, so you make sure you select “Enable” too. Now go back, and enter Settings->TV to tick Enabled.Kodi_TV_SettingsConfiguration is now complete, and when you go back to Kodi home screen, you could see a new TV menu with five sub-section: Channels, Guide, Recordings, Timer, and Search.


I’ve just tapped on TV, and got the list of apps from U4 Quad Hybrid set-top box on my smartphone.  The channel information (in Thai language) was not displayed properly for some reasons.

Kodi_Live_TV_channels Now select any channels from the left, and will it start playing in the preview windows, and tap the preview and it will switch to full screen.

Click for Original Size

Click for Original Size

Once the video is playing you can also tap the screen to have access to options, change channels, change audio tracks and so on.

You can watch the video below to see all configuration steps, and a demo starting at 3:15.

If you are interested in U4 Quad Hybrid you can purchased it on Aliexpress for $119.99 (DHL) or $106.69 (China Post). I intend to post a complete review next week.

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Getting Started with Wemos D1 mini ESP8266 Board, DHT & Relay Shields

March 22nd, 2016 6 comments

Wemos D1 mini is an ESP8266 board that’s interesting thanks to its size, its low price ($4), micro USB power, its shields, and a documentation that looks fairly good. The board can be programmed with Arduino or Lua, and supports both serial and OTA programming. I’ve decided to give it a try and bought the board together with two temperature shields, a relay shield, and micro SD shield.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

I got all for $ 14.00 from Wemos Aliexpress shop, and it took about one month for delivery. I can also see they’ve recently released a new OLED shield selling for about $5. All shields were shipped inside their own anti-static bags.

The pins are clearly marked on both side of the board and the shields. One side of the board features ESP8266 module.


and the other side has CH340 serial to USB chip, and the reset button.


The provided headers make it easy to stack the board with several shields if you wish too. For example I connect Wemos D1 mini to both the relay shield, and DHT Pro shield after soldering some of the headers. The only potential pitfall would be to solder the header on the wrong side, so you just need to make sure the pins (5V, RST,…) are properly aligned.


I’ve mostly followed the Getting Started in Arduino guide in in this tutorial, and people who prefer Lua/NodeMCU will want to check NodeMCU guide instead. There are various ways to configure the Arduino IDE for WeMos D1 mini in the guide, but I’ve only used the recommended way: git.

The first step was to install and run Arduino 1.6.8. Since I’m using a computer running Ubuntu 14.04 64-bit, I downloaded and installed Arduino 1.6.8 64-bit for Linux:

Now get the sketchbook folder by going to File->Preferences


Note this folder as this is where we’ll install the board support, tools and examples, and exit Arduino before starting the installation:

download the binary tools:

and finally install the examples:

Later on, you can update the board support files and the samples by running git pull in the two directories where you ran git clone.

Now connect Wemos D1 mini to a USB port of your computer with a micro USB to USB cable. In Linux, you should see a new device in the kernel log:

Let’s start Arduino 1.6.8 and select WeMos D1 R2 & mini in Tools->Board.

Arduino_1.6.8_Wemos_D1_miniWe can use the default for the other settings include 80 MHz CPU frequency, 4M flash size, 912600 upload speed, and /dev/ttyUSB0 port.

We can now use the code samples, and to make sure everything works I’ll run the blink project in File->Sketchbooks->D1_mini_Examples->01. Basics->Blink:

Pressing the Upload button will build and upload to code to the board and once this is complete, the build-in Blue LED (D4 / GPIO2) will blink every second. So my board is working.


As you can see I’ve already connected DHT Pro shield to the board, so let’s try the sample for the shield to get the temperature and humidity in File->Sketchbooks->D1_mini_Examples->04. Shield->DHT_Pro_Shield->Simple:

But this time I had an error during compilation, as DHT library is missing:

To fix that error, go to Sketch->Include Library->Manage Libraries, input dht to filter the library, and install DHT sensor library by Adafruit.

Install_DHT_LibraryNow click on the Upload button again, the code will be compiled and uploaded to the board. Now open the serial monitor with Ctrl+Shift M or Tools->Serial Monitor, and you should see the printed values for the humidity in percent as well as the  temperature & heat index in Celcius and Fahrenheit.

Wemos_D1_mini_Temperature_HumidityThe reported temperature matched the temperature reported by my IR thermometer (32.5 C). Pretty good. If you’d like to get results displayed on a web page instead, you may want to modify DHT Shield->SimpleServer sample.

Now I’ll had the relay shield on top, and run another sample (File->Sketchbooks->D1_mini_Examples->04. Shield->Relay_Shield->Blink):

The relay blink sample will turn on and off the relay every two seconds. Since the DHT Pro shield uses D4 pin and the Relay shield uses D1 pin both can be used at the same time. I had no problem uploading the sample to the board, and hearing the relay switch on and off every 2 second.

So overall, I’m very pleased with WeMos D1 mini and the shields I tried, as everything pretty much worked out of the box, and I’ve got an ultra-compact WiFi connected system with a 5A/250V relay, and a fairly accurate (+/- 0.5C) temperature and humidity sensor for around $10.

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