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Posts Tagged ‘yocto’

TechNexion Introduces Intel Edison Compatible PICO-iMX6 SoM and DWARF Board

March 16th, 2015 No comments

Intel Edison is a board made for wearables featuring an SoC with Intel Atom and Quark CPU cores. TechNexion, an embedded systems company based in Taiwan, has decided to make a mechanically and electrically compatible system-on-module featuring Frescale i.MX6 Solo or Duallite ARM Cortex A9 processor called PICO-iMX6. The company is also providing a PICO-DWARF baseboard that’s both compatible with PICO-iMX6 SoM and Edison board. DWARF stands for “Drones, Wearables, Appliances, Robotics and Fun”, so that pretty much explains what the platform is for.

PICO-iMX6 System-on-Module

PICO-iMX6-SD Module (Click to Enlarge)

PICO-iMX6-SD Module (Click to Enlarge)

Two version of the modules are available: PICO-iMX6-SD and PICO-iMX6-EMMC, the former with a micro SD slot for storage, and the latter a 4GB eMMC. Both share the followings specifications:

  • SoC – Freescale i.MX6 Solo / Duallite  single/dual core ARM Cortex A9 @ 1Ghz with Vivante GC880 3D GPU and Vivante GC320 2D GPU (Composition)
  • System Memory – 512MB or 1GB DDR3
  • Storage – PICO-iMX6-SD: micro SD slot;  PICO-iMX6-EMMC: 4GB eMMC
  • Connectivity
    • Gigabit Network RGMII Signals routed to board-to-board connector
    • Broadcom BCM4335 802.11ac Wi-Fi
    • Broadcom BCM4336 Bluetooth  4.0
  • Connectors – 1x Intel Edison compatible connector (Hirose 70-pin); 2x Hirose 70-pin connectors
  • I/O Interface Signaling
    • Edison I/O @ 1.8V
      • 9x GPIO
      • 4x PWM
      • 2x I²C, 1x SPI, 2x UART
      • 1x I²S
      • USB-OTG
      • SDIO (4-bit)
    • Additional I/O @ 3.3V
      • Display I/F – Single Channel LVDS; 24-bit TTL RGB; HDMI 1.4; MIPI DSI Display
      • Camera – MIPI CSI Camera
      • PCIe
      • RGMII (gigabit LAN)
      • CAN
  • Video – Decode: 1080p30 + D1; Encode: 1080p30 H.264 BP / Dual 720p
  • Power Supply  – 3.3 ~ 4.5 VDC input
  • Dimensions – 36 x 40 mm
  • Weight – 8 grams
  • Temperature Range – Commercial : 0° to 60° C; Extended : -20° to 70° C; Industrial : -40° to 85° C (no WiFi possible)
  • Relative Humidity – 10 – 90%
  • Certification – CE, FCC, RoHS, REACh

PICO-iMX6_Block_DiagramIntel Edison board measures 36x25mm, so PICO-iMX6 module is a little bigger, and it might not always be 100% compatible depending on your application’s mechanical requirements. Edison Board comes with 1GB RAM, 4GB eMMC, and features a similar Broadcom BCM43340 wireless module. Beside the 70-pin “Edison compatible” connector, TechNexion SoMs also add two hirose connectors for additional signals.

The company can provide BSP for Linux 3.x, Yocto, Android 4.3, Android 4.4, Android 5.0, and Ubuntu. These are not available for download yet, but you should eventually be able to get the necessary files via the Download Center.

PICO-DWARF Carrier Board

If you think PICO-DWARF baseboard looks familiar, it’s because it’s heavily inspired from Wandboard development board, replacing RS-232 DB9 connector by a MIPI connector, removing optical S/PDIF, and a few other modifications.

PICO-DWARF (Left) vs Wandbaord (Right)

PICO-DWARF (Left) vs Wandbaord (Right)

While on the other side of the board, the larger EDM module, as been replaced with the tiny PICO-IMX6 SoM.

PICO-DWARF specifications are listed as follows:

Bottom of PICO-DWARF Board

Bottom of PICO-DWARF Board

  • Supported System-on-Module
    • Intel Edison connector (1x 70-pin Hirose Connector)
    • TechNexion Pico connectors (3x 70-pin Hirose Connector)
  • External Storage – 1x SATA data + power connector, 1x micro SD slot
  • Connectivity – Gigabit LAN (Atheros AR8031) with RJ45 connector
  • Video Output / Display
    • HDMI
    • Single Channel LVDS (expansion header)
    • 24-bit TTL RGB (expansion header)
    • MIPI DSI Display on 33-pin FPC Connector
  • Camera – MIPI CSI signals on 33-pin FPC connector
  • Audio – Freescale SGTL5000 audio codec; Three 3.5 mm jacks for stereo audio in, stereo audio out, and microphone
  • Sensors – Altimeter (Freescale MPL3115A2), 3D Accelerometer (Freescale FXOS8700CQ), Gyroscope (Freescale FXAS21002)
  • USB – 1x USB 2.0 Host connector,  1x USB 2.0 OTG connector
  • Expansion Headers with access to signaling for single Channel LVDS,  24-bit TTL RGB, PCIe, CAN, GPIO, PWM, I²C, SPI, and UART
  • Misc – RTC DS1337+ with backup battery
  • Power
    • 5V DC +/- 5% via 5.5 / 2.1mm barrel jack
    • LiPo Battery with Freescale MC32BC3770CSR2 based battery charging circuit; 2-pin header for battery
  • Temperature – Commercial : 0° to 60° C
  • Relative Humidity – 10 – 90%
  • Dimensions – 95 x 95 mm
  • Weight – 40 grams
  • Certification – CE, FCC, RoHS, REACh directives
Block Diagram for the DWARF Platform (Click to Enlarge)

Block Diagram for the DWARF Platform (Click to Enlarge)

Please note that SATA won’t be supported by i.MX6 Solo or Duallite processor, so this would only work on future modules featuring Freescale i.MX6 Dual or Quad processor. PICO-DWARF carrier board will be open source hardware, as the company plans to release the schematics, design files, board files and bills of material for the board, just as they’ve done for their previous products.

PICO-DWARF baseboard and PICO-IMX6 modules are expected to start shipping in May and June, with the baseboard and PICO-IMX6-SD first, shortly followed by PICO-MX6-eMMC modules, and a quad core version. PICO-iMX6-SD with Freescale i.MX6 Solo will sell for about $50, while kits based on PICO-iMX6 SoM and PICO-DWARF carrier board will go for $130 to $150 depending on configuration. Further details can be found on TechNexion’s PICO page.

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Build a Raspberry Pi 2 Minimal Image with The Yocto Project

February 27th, 2015 12 comments

The Yocto Project is a build system that allows developers to make custom Linux distributions matching their exact needs. I’ve already shown how to build a 12MB Compressed image for the Raspberry Pi with Yocto, but the Raspberry Pi 2 has recently been added to the project, so I’ve tried to build it too in a machine running Ubuntu 14.04.

Raspberry_Pi_2_Yocto_ProjectI’ll use poky since it’s the default, but you could also build the system for Angstrom or without distributions (OpenEmbedded Core only). The steps to get the code is just the same as for the Raspberry Pi:

mkdir yocto
cd yocto
git clone git://git.yoctoproject.org/poky.git
cd poky
git clone git://git.yoctoproject.org/meta-raspberrypi
You just need to checkout master, and not any branch (like dizzy) since R-Pi 2 is not yet supported in any release. Initialize some environment variables and the build directory:
. oe-init-build-env build

Now edit conf/local.conf with vim or nano to set the machine to raspberrypi2 instead of qemux86:

MACHINE ??= "raspberrypi2"
GPU_MEM = "16"

There are more Raspberry Pi specific option in the README for setting the GPU memory, overclocking, adding VC-1 or/and MPEG-2 licenses, and so on.

You also need to add the path to meta-raspberrypi in conf/bblayers file, so that it looks like:

BBLAYERS ?= " \
  /home/jaufranc/edev/rpi/yocto/poky/meta \
  /home/jaufranc/edev/rpi/yocto/poky/meta-yocto \
  /home/jaufranc/edev/rpi/yocto/poky/meta-yocto-bsp \
  /home/jaufranc/edev/rpi/yocto/poky/meta-raspberrypi \
  "

Two minimal images are available: rpi-basic-image and rpi-hwup-image. I’ve built rpi-basic-image, which adds ssh-server-dropbear (for ssh server support) and splash (for the splash screen).

bitbake rpi-basic-image

This will take a while, possibly over one or more hours, and upon completion the log shown in the terminal windows should look similar to:

bitbake rpi-basic-image
Loading cache: 100% |###########################################| ETA:  00:00:00
Loaded 1310 entries from dependency cache.
NOTE: Resolving any missing task queue dependencies

Build Configuration:
BB_VERSION        = “1.25.0”
BUILD_SYS         = “x86_64-linux”
NATIVELSBSTRING   = “Ubuntu-14.04″
TARGET_SYS        = “arm-poky-linux-gnueabi”
MACHINE           = “raspberrypi2″
DISTRO            = “poky”
DISTRO_VERSION    = “1.7”
TUNE_FEATURES     = “arm armv7a vfp thumb neon callconvention-hard vfpv4 cortexa7″
TARGET_FPU        = “vfp-vfpv4-neon”
meta
meta-yocto
meta-yocto-bsp    = “master:6d7cf8e9dd00bdff882311fecbadfadc46e9cc03″
meta-raspberrypi  = “master:d8bf60ce6c4a6c6371527c6df2e3243d2771c0cc”

NOTE: Preparing RunQueue
NOTE: Executing SetScene Tasks
NOTE: Executing RunQueue Tasks
NOTE: Tasks Summary: Attempted 1984 tasks of which 1968 didn’t need to be rerun and all succeeded.

The step “0: bcm2835-bootfiles-20150206-r3 do_fetch (pid 25484)” may take a long time as it’s cloning a few gigabytes of data for the firmware stored  github. Just be patient, this step took several hours on my machine.

You can now flash the image to a micro SD card with:

sudo dd if=tmp/deploy/images/raspberrypi2/rpi-basic-image-raspberrypi2.rpi-sdimg | pv | sudo dd of=/dev/sdX bs=16M

Where you need to replace X with the letter of your SD card, which you can check with lsblk. Alternatively, you could also flash the image with Win32DiskImager in Windows. Here’s the compiled image for your reference: rpi-basic-image-raspberrypi2-20150227091441.rootfs.rpi-sdimg (104 MB). You’ll also need to use tools like gparted to expand the ext-4 partition to make use of all the space on your micro SD card.

You’d then just have to insert the micro SD card into your Raspberry Pi 2, boot, and login as root without password. I have not tried, since I don’t have a Raspberry Pi 2 yet.

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Freescale Announces i.MX 6SoloX ARM Cortex A9 & Cortex M4 Processor

February 25th, 2015 7 comments

Freescale i.MX6 SoloX processor started to show up in the ARM Linux Kernel mailing list last year, and Cortex A9 + Cortex M4 processor showed up in some marketing documents, but so far all documentation was tied to a non-diclosure agreement. However, all resources are now publicly available, as the company officially launched i.MX 6SoloX processor at Embedded World 2015.

IMX6SX Block Diagram

IMX6SX Block Diagram (Dotted line are for optional features)

Freescale i.MX 6SoloX specifications:

  • CPU – ARM Cortex-A9 up to 1 GHz with 512 KB L2 cache, 32 KB instruction and data caches and NEON SIMD media accelerator
  • MCU – ARM Cortex-M4 up to 200 MHz with 16 KB instruction and data caches, 64 KB TCM, MPU and FPU
  • Memory Interface
    • 16/32-bit DDR3-800 and DDR3L-800, 16/32-bit LPDDR2-800
    • SLC/MLC NAND, 62-bit ECC, ONFI2.2
    • 2x DDR Quad SPI NOR flash, 16/32-bit NOR Flash
  • Display and Camera Interfaces
    • Parallel RGB
    • LVDS
    • 20-bit parallel CMOS sensor interface
    • NTSC/PAL analog video input interface
  • Multimedia
    • GPU – Vivante GC400T 3D GPU supporting OpenGL ES 2.0. 27Mtri/s & 133Mpxl/s and 2D GPU
    • PiXel Processing Pipeline (PXP) – Image re-sizing, rotation, overlay and CSC
  • I/O and Peripherals
    • 2x 10/100/1000 Ethernet with \hardware AVB and support for IEEE1588
    • 1x PCIe 2.0 (1 lane)
    • 2x 8ch 12-bit ADC
    • 3x USB 2.0 ports, 2x HS OTG + PHY, 1x HS Host HSIC
    • 4x SD/MMC 4.5
    • 5x SPI, 6x UART, 4x I²C, 5x I²S/SSI
    • FlexCAN
    • MLB 25/50
  • Power management – Partial PMU integration,Freescale PF0200 PMIC
  • Security
    • Multicore unit includes for multi-core isolation and sharing
    • Resource Domain Controller (RDC)
    • Secure Messaging Unit (MU)
    • Hardware Semaphores
    • High Assurance Boot, cryptographic cipher engines, random number generator, and tamper detection
  • Packages – 19 x 19 mm 0.8 mm BGA;  17 x 17 mm 0.8 mm BGA (two ball map options); or 14 x 14 mm 0.65 mm BGA
  • Temperature Range
    • Consumer (Extended Commercial) –  -20C to +105C
    • Industrial – -40C to +105C
    • Automotive – -40C to +125C)

There are 13 i.MX 6SoloX parts divided into consumer, industrial and automotive categories with or without GPU, and different peripherals options as shown in the table below.

Freescale i.MX 6SoloX Family (Click to Enlarge)

Freescale i.MX 6SoloX Family (Click to Enlarge)

Documentation including datasheets, migration guide, various applications, and the full Technical Reference Manual can be freely downloaded, as well as Android 4.4.3 BSP and Linux 3.10.53 documentation. The Yocto Project has also been ported to i.MX 6SoloX (IMX6SX). The Cortex M4 core can run MQX RTOS in parallel.

SABRE-SDB Board for i.MX 6SoloX (Click to Enlarge)

“SABRE for Smart Devices”- Board based on Freescale i.MX 6SoloX (Click to Enlarge)

The company also also launched an i.MX 6SoloX version of their SABRE development board with the following key features:

  • SoC – Freescale i.MX 6SoloX Cortex A9 processor @ 1GHz with Cortex M4 MCU @ 200MHz
  • System Memory – 1 GB DDR3 SDRAM
  • Storage – 32 MB x2 QuadSPI Flash + 3x full-size SD/MMC card slots
  • Display
    • LVDS connector – Pairs with MCIMX-LVDS1 LCD display board
    • LCD expansion connector (parallel, 24-bit) – Pairs with MCIMXHDMICARD adapter board
  • Audio – Stereo audio codec; 1x 3.5mm audio ports
  • Connectivity – 2x 10/100/1000 Ethernet ports; optional Wi-Fi module
  • USB – 1x USB 2.0 Host Type A connector, 1x micro USB 2.0 OTG connector
  • Other ports and I/O Expansion
    • mPCIe connector
    • 2x CAN (DB-9) connectors; Freescale MC34901 High-Speed CAN Transceiver
  • Debugging – 20-pin JTAG connector
  • Sensors – Freescale MMA8451 3-Axis Accelerometer, Freescale MAG3110 3D Magnetometer, ambient light sensor
  • Power Supply – 5V
  • Power Management – Freescale PF0200 PMIC
Back of SABRE i.MX 6SoloX Board (Click to Enlarge)

Back of SABRE i.MX 6SoloX Board (Click to Enlarge)

The board comes with a 5V/5A power supply, the printed quick start guide, a micro USB to USB cable, and a bootable SD card pre-loaded with a Linux image built with the Yocto Project. Android, Linux and Yocto BSP are available for the board, as well as hardware design files. Some optional hardware modules can be purchased with the board such as a 10.1″ touchscreen display (XGA resolution), an RGB to HDMI adapter, and a Wi-Fi radio card.

You can watch an overview of the board, and learn how to get started in the video below.

Freescale i.MX 6SoloX applications processors and SABRE board are both shipping in volume production, with the SoC selling for $10.84 to $13.99 in 1K quantities depending on exact SKU, and the development board priced at $399. For complete details, software and hardware documentation, visit Freescale i.MX 6SoloX and SABRE board product pages. Freescale also exhibits the solution at Embedded World, in Hall 4A, Booth 4A-220, on February 24-26, 2015.

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Toucan-0700 HMI Panel Runs Linux or Android on Freescale i.MX6 Processors

February 21st, 2015 4 comments

TechNexion Toucan-0700 is an HMI (Human Machine Interface) panel based on Freescale i.MX6 modules and a baseboard following EDM standard for system-on-modules. The 7″ panel PC features the same EDM1-CF-IMX6 SoM used in Wandboard development boards, and runs various Linux distributions, as well as Android 4.3 or 4.4.

Toucan-0700Toucan-0700 specifications:

  • SoC – Freescale i.MX6 Solo/Duallite Cortex A9 processor with Vivante GPUs (i.MX6 Dual/Quad on request)
  • System Memory – 512MB (Solo), 1GB (Duallite)
  • Storage – 4GB eMMC + micro SD slot
  • Display – 7″ LCD display with LED backlight, 1024×600 resolution;  16M colors;  500 cd/m²; 4 points touchscreen
  • Video Output – HDMI 1.4 for external display
  • Connectivity – Gigabit Ethernet with POE function 802.3at, and optional WiFi 802.11 b/g/n + Bluetooth 4.0 (Broadcom BCM4330)
  • USB – 1x USB 2.0 host port, 1x USB OTG 3.0 connector, 2x internal pin headers
  • Serial – 1x RS-232 (galvanic isolated), 1x RS-232/422/485 (galvanic isolated), 2x Flex CAN version 2.0B Compliant (galvanic isolated)
  • Other I/Os and expansions
    • 4x GPIO
    • 1x internal pin header (if touchpanel is not used)
    • Audio speaker connectors (Left / Right) (2 Watt pre-amplified)
  • Misc – 1x Reset button, 1x Boot select button (force SD card boot)
  • Power Supply –
    • 10~30VDC via 2 pin DC power terminal block
    • 36~57VDC Power over Ethenet (PoE) 802.3at
  • Power Consumption – 7 Watt
  • Dimensions – 184 (W) x 122 (H) x 30 (D) mm
  • Weight 595 grams
  • Temperature Range – Operation 0° to 60° C; Storage: -20° to 70° C
  • Relative Humidity – 10 – 90%
  • MTBF – 50,000 hours
  • Shock – 50G / 25 ms; Vibration 20G / 0-600 Hz
  • Certifications – CE, FCC, RoHS, REACh directives

Mounting can be achieved via 4 mounting clips (included), or an optional 35×75 VESA Mount (MIS C. Standard). You find hardware and software documentation, as well as Linux 3.x, Yocto 1.5, Ubuntu 12.04, Android 4.3 (jellybean), Android 4.4 (Kitkat) images, and Linux 3.0.35 SDK on Toucan-0700 Documentation and Downloads page.

Toucan-0700_Connectors

Vertical or Horizontal Connectors Configuration

Toucan-0700 HMI panel appears to be available now. Further information can be fond on TechNexion’s Toucan-0700 product page. The product can also be purchased in Europe via DENX Computer or Texim Europe, which lists the product for 540.09 Euros without Wi-FI/Bluetooth, and 584.00 Euros with.

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Embedded Linux Conference 2015 Schedule – IoT, Cars, and Drones

February 6th, 2015 No comments

Embedded Linux Conference 2015 will take place in San Jose, California, on March 23 – 25, 2015, and will focus on Drones, Things and Automobiles. The schedule has been published, and whether you’ll attend or not, it’s always interested to have a look at what will be talked about to have a peak into the future of Embedded Linux, or simply keep abreast with the progress in the field.

Embedded_LInux_Conference_2015So as usual, I’ve gone through the schedule, and made my own virtual program with talks that I find interesting.

Monday 23rd

  • 9:00 – 9:30 – Driving standards and Open Source to Grow the Internet of Things by Mark Skarpness, Director of Systems Engineering at Intel

Billions of devices are beginning to come online, and many of these devices, large and small, are running open source software.  To fuel this innovation, it’s more important than ever for these devices to use a common framework to communicate with each other and the cloud.  Intel is a founding member of the Open Interconnect Consortium (OIC), which will use both open source innovation and standards specifications to drive interoperability across multiple operating systems and communication protocols to enable the Internet of Things. As one of the founding members of the Linux Foundation, a top external contributor to the Android Open Source Project, and a leader behind USB, WiFi, Bluetooth and other projects and standards, Intel has the depth of knowledge and a unique approach to move things forward to benefit developers and consumers.

  • 9:30 – 10:00 – Project Ara with Paul Eremenko, Head of Project Ara, ATAP at Google & Marti Bolivar, Project Ara Software Lead, Google

Marti and Paul will discuss Project Ara’s aim to develop an open hardware platform for modular smartphones, with the goal of creating a vibrant module developer community and a marketplace from which consumers can create an entirely custom mobile device.

  • 10:45 – 11:35 – Generalizing Android for Low-Cost 64-Bit ARM-Based Community Boards by Khasim Syed Mohammed, Linaro

Linaro is developing an open hardware platform specification to encourage software development on low-cost boards to lower the cost and accelerate the availability of maker and embedded products based on ARM SoCs. By end of 2015 there will be many compliant boards based on and adhering to this specification. The key challenge for the Android community is to enable and maintain Android for multiple platforms on a common code base. This presentation highlights the issues like non-standard SoC customizations, peripheral controller customizations from vendors and shares the possible solutions through Android software generalization.

  • 11:45 – 12:35 – Open Source Drones on Linux by Lorenz Meier

This presentation will summarize the current state in academia and industry using Linux on drones, which is by now already a widespread and common pattern.

  • 14:00 – 14:50 – IoTivity and Embedded Linux Support by Kishen Maloor, Intel

IoTivity is a new collaborative project, hosted at the Linux Foundation and sponsored by the Open Interconnect Consortium. Its goal is to facilitate interconnections across the billions of “things” to be on the Internet in coming years. A majority of these “things” would be low-power embedded devices. To satisfy their connectivity needs, IoTivity must support a variety of transmission media, such as WiFi, Bluetooth, Bluetooth LE, 6LoWPAN over 805.15.4, etc. This session will present an overview of IoTivity’s current support for the Yocto Linux environment on embedded platforms, and how it allows us to be flexible for multiple purposes. It will also present how a developer can enable IoTivity on Yocto and make modifications.

  • 15:00 – 15:50 – Performance Analysis Using the perf Suite by Mans Rullgard

When faced with a performance problem, the initial steps towards a solution include identifying the sections of code responsible and the precise reasons they are time-consuming. To this end, the ‘perf’ profiling tools provide valuable insight into the characteristics of a program. The presentation will show, using real-world examples, how the ‘perf’ tools can be used to pinpoint the parts of a program in need of optimisation.

This presentation will be a version of that given at ELCE 2014 updated based on questions and audience feedback.

  • 16:20 – 17:10 – Poky meets Debian: Understanding How to Make an Embedded Linux by Using an Existing Distribution’s Source Code by Yoshitake Kobayashi, Toshiba

Poky has already become one of the most popular build system to make an embedded Linux environment. Poky refers to OpenEmbedded originally. However if you want to use other source code, how to do it? We have some experience we would like to share with you. For this study, We choose Debian source and already tried two ways to use it. The first try was probably an incorrect way and the second try may be a correct way.

In this talk, we will show both of them and also describe why we choose Debian. If you are interested in this implementation, you can download the source code from GitHub (cnxsoft: empty for now). There are some implementations available for development boards such as pandaboard, minnowboard and etc. Let’s enjoy Bitbake!

  • 17:20 – 18:10 – Teaching More Fish to Fly by John Hawley, Intel

n 2013, at the Embedded Linux Conference in Europe in Edinburgh, there was a race between a dog and a blimp. It was said that despite the dogs win, that the blimp had participated in the miracle of flight. In 2014 we started showing how the MinnowBoard can be lofted and show useful. In 2015 we just want to give an update on where we are at and what interesting projects are being done both with the MinnowBoard and other platforms in the UAV space. The talk is mainly targeting taking an off the shelf embedded platform, Minnowboard Max, and it’s use in UAVs, specifically quad-copters. With the ability to do real time computer vision, as well as various GPIO capabilities we’ll explore the directions that significantly more autonomous UAVs can take with Linux and embedded platforms using, mostly, off the shelf components.

Tuesday 24th

  • 9:00 – 10:50 – Customizing AOSP for my Device by Rafael Coutinho, Phi Innovations

Android BSP gives you some tools to create your own device customizations. This can be achieved without changes on the Android main code, and just some customizations on the devices folder. It is possible to overlay some system apk configurations, ui and even services. In this tutorial I plan to show the step by step of creating a custom Android device using a AOSP. Setting up some Kernel parameters, customizing the lights HAL and sensors HAL, changing the look and feel of Settings apk etc.

  • 11:20 – 12:10 – Room For Cooperation: Bionic and musl by Bernhard Rosenkränzer, Linaro

A while after Android started Bionic, another interesting libc project was started: musl. Its licensing is compatible with Android’s – so there may be room for picking the best of both worlds. This talk investigates where musl outperforms Bionic and vice versa — and whether or not (and how) Android can benefit from pulling musl code into Bionic.

  • 13:40 – 14:10 – Dronecode Project and Autopilot With Linux by Andrew Tridgell, Technical Steering Committee Chair of Dronecode Project

Andrew “Tridge” Tridgell provides updates on the progress of Dronecode’s open source software project for commercial drones, and insight into the future of drone development. He will also delve into the specific task of running an autopilot directly on a Linux-based platform.

  • 14:10 – 14:55 – IoT Panel with Dominig Ar Foll, Intel (Tizen); Greg Burns, AllSeen Alliance; Bryant Eastham, Panasonic; Guy Martin, Samsung; Tim Bird, Sony Mobile (Moderator)
  • 15:40 – 16:30 – Linux for Microcontrollers: From Marginal to Mainstream by Vitaly Wool, Softprise Consulting OU

The story of a DRAM-less Linux-operated microcontroller delivered at ELC a year ago, which came as a surprise for many, wouldn’t be that surprising now. However, there are some important updates to share: moving to mainline-aligned 3.x baseline, compiling out VM-specific code, optimizing kernel XIP, and the last but not the least, starting to use picoTCP kernel networking stack.

Some size and performance benchmarks will also be presented, along with the Linux demo on the DRAM-less microcontroller board.

  • 16:40 – 18:20 – Building a General Purpose Android Workstation by Ron Munitz

In this tutorial, you will have a hands-on journey of customizing, building, and using a General Purpose Desktop variant of the Android-X86 project. The tutorial assumes previous experience with building Android off the AOSP, Android-IA, CyanogenMod, or any other build system, and describes the special additions of Android-X86, such as a Kernel build system, general X86 hardware detection based HAL’s/firmware and live cd/disk installer generation and more. Then, we will explore the Linux friendly busybox minimal image, and describe the way a fully fledged Android version can be spawned out of it (with similar techniques for any other Linux distribution with the Android patches!) using chroot, and provide a listing of the ultimate Android init process.

We will continue the discussion with day to day uses, and a joint brainstorming of Linux developer uses, and justify Android-X86 as yet another X-less Linux distribution – until the time we add X to it… As a special bonus, we will address how to make any app run using a user-QEMU based ARM translator.

  • 18:20 – 19:20 – BoFs: Yocto Project / OpenEmbedded by Jeff Osier-Mixon

Got a question, comment, gripe, praise, or other communication for the Yocto Project and/or OpenEmbedded? Or maybe you’d just like to learn more about these projects and their influence on the world of embedded Linux? Feel free to join us for an informal BoF.

Wednesday 25th

  • 9:00 – 9:30 – Embedding Openness in the Connected Car by Matt Jones, Jaguar Land Rover

A future vehicle will be a “thing” on the Internet, but how can industry and community come together to accelerate the future concepts into production. The keynote will explore the platforms and standard needed for the future, and relate them to open prototypes from Jaguar Land Rover and the Automotive Grade Linux projects.

  • 9:30 – 10:00 – Community Involvement: Looking Forward and Looking Back by Deepak Saxena

Linux has grown by leaps and bounds in the last decade, finding its way into billions of mobile devices and also into the core of cloud based services that we rely on for business, entertainment, and increasingly, security. With this explosion of devices, we have seen more companies get involved with the kernel community, some successfully, and some struggling. In this talk, we will look at some of the challenges that the industry and the community continue to face in working with each other and also more importantly think about what is next? The adoption of Linux will continue to increase throughout all market segments, bringing in numerous new organizations and new developers. How do we move forward and what changes need to happen within the industry and community cultures to work better together?

  • 10:45 – 17:50 – Embedded Android Workshop by Karim Yaghmour, Opersys

While Android has been created for mobile devices — phones first and now tablets — it can, nonetheless, be used as the basis of any touch-screen system, whether it be mobile or not. Essentially, Android is a custom-built embedded Linux distribution with a very elaborate and rich set of user-space abstractions, APIs, services and virtual machine. This one-day workshop is aimed at embedded developers wanting to build embedded systems using Android. It will cover Android from the ground up, enabling developers to get a firm hold on the components that make up Android and how they need to be adapted to an embedded system. Specifically, we will start by introducing Android’s overall architecture and then proceed to peel Android’s layer one-by-one.

That’s a just a small selection of the talks, and there are many other interested sessions if you are interested in IoT, automotive or drone applications.

If you’d like to attend, you can register online with a single fee for the Embedded Linux Conference and Android Builders Summit 2015, as well as breakfasts and breaks, a T-shirt, and access to evening events:

  • Early Bird Registration Fee – US$500 through January 30, 2015
  • Standard Registration Fee – US$650 through March 5, 2015
  • Late Registration Fee – US$750 after March 5, 2015
  • Student Registration Fee – US$150
  • Hobbyist Registration Fee – US$150

If you attend as a hobbyist, you need to contact events [at] linuxfoundation.org to receive a discount code.

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Gateworks GW5520 Single Board Computer Features Dual Gigabit Ethernet Ports, Two mini PCIe Slots

February 4th, 2015 6 comments

If you need industrial grade ARM Linux boards with lots of Ethernet ports and several mini PCIe slots, you may want to check out Gateworks Ventana boards. The company has now released a smaller member of Ventana family with GW5520 SBC powered by Freescale i.MX6 dual, with two Gigabit Ethernet port, two mini PCIe slots, and support for PoE.

Ventana_GW5520_BoardGateworks Ventana GW5520 SBC specifications:

  • SoC- Freescale i.MX6 Dual Cortex A9 processor @ 800MHz with Vivante Vivante GC2000 / GC355 / GC320 GPUs. Option: i.MX6 Quad
  • System Memory – 512 MB DDR3-800 SDRAM (Up to 2GB RAM as option)
  • Storage – 256 MB Flash (Up to 2GB as option), serial configuration EEPROM
  • Video and Audio Output – HDMI 1.4
  • Connectivity – 2x Gigabit Ethernet ports.
  • USB – 2x USB 2.0 host ports
  • Expansion
    • 2x Mini-PCIe sockets
    • Optional mini-PCIe socket to supports a mSATA disk drive (i.MX6 Quad only)
    •  I/Os
      • Serial – CAN Bus 2.0B up to 1Mbps, 3x TTL serial ports
      • 4x GPIOs
  • Misc – RTC with battery backup,  voltage & temperature monitor, watchdog timer
  • Power Supply – 8 to 60V DC input voltage; Power via barrel or passive PoE Ethernet; reverse voltage and transient protection
  • Power consumption –  3W @ 25 C (Typical); 16W shared between mini PCIe slots
  • Dimensions – 100 x 70 x 21 mm
  • Operating Temperature – -40 to +85C

The company claims a 81.9 years MTBF at 55°C, but I’m not quite sure how this is computed… OpenWRT, OpenEmbedded Yocto, and Android BSPs are available for the board.. It’s also supported in mainline kernel since Linux 3.18 release. Documentation is available on Ventana boards Wiki.

Based on the block diagram below, they don’t use the GMAC inside i.MX6, and instead connected an external Gigabit Ethernet via PCIe, so they should not be subject to the 470 Mbps known limitation for Gigabit Ethernet on i.MX6 processor. [Update: The company confirmed that, and they measured 940 Mbps on their Ethernet ports]

Ventana GW5520 Block Diagram

Ventana GW5520 Block Diagram

Gateworks also offers  GW5520 Development Kit which includes GW5520 network computer, U-Boot bootloader, OpenWRT Linux Board Support Package, Ethernet, serial, USB, audio and video cables, as well as a passive PoE power injector and a 24V power supply, and a JTAG Programmer.The network board appears to be available now selling for about $400 on Avnet, while the development kit goes for around $500. You can visit Gateworks GW5520 product page for details, including download links to the datasheet and user’s manual.

[Update: I’ve also been informed about GW5510 based on i.MX6 Solo, but smaller (35x70mm), without Ethernet port (a mini PCIe card can be used to add Wi-Fi), and both HDMI in and out.[

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Variscite Introduces TI Sitara AM437x SoM with Bluetooth and Wi-Fi

January 30th, 2015 1 comment

News about Texas Instruments Sitara AM437x processors first surfaced in 2012, before being officially announced last summer. Beside TI’s own development kits, I had not seen any hardware based on the company’s Cortex A9 industrial processor, but Variscite has now unveiled their VAR-SOM-AM43 systems-on-module (SoM) powered by AM4376 , AM4378, or AM4379 SoCs.

Variscite_VAR-SOM-AM43VAR-SOM-AM43 specifications:

  • SoC – Texas Instruments AM437x single core ARM Cortex A9 processor @ 1.0GHz:
    • AM4376 – No GPU, 4x PRU @ 200 MHz
    • AM4378 – PowerVR SGX530 GPU, 4x PRU @ 200 MHz
    • AM4379 – PowerVR SGX530 GPU, 4x PRU @ 200 MHz, and EtherCAT slave support
  • System Memory – 256MB to 1GB DDR3
  • Storage – 0 to 512MB SLC NAND flash, and 4GB to 32GB eMMC flash b module. 3x SD/MMC via edge connector
  • Display Interfaces – 24-bit RGB interface up to 1400×1050 resolution; 4/5-wire resistive touch support
  • Connectivity  – 10/100/1000 Mbps Ethernet PHY + 10/100/1000 Mbps RGMII,  802.11a/b/g/n with optional MIMO, and Bluetooth 4.0 (TI Wilink 8 WL183xMOD module)
  • Other I/Os and interfaces available via the 204-pin SO-DIMM connector:
    • Audio – Analog / digital microphone, S/PDIF, and Line In/Out
    • USB – 1x USB 2.0 host, 1x USB OTG
    • 5x UART up to 3.6 Mbps
    • 3x I2C, 4x SPI, 1x One Wire/HDP, 2x CAN bus
    • RTC (on carrier board)
    • Camera – 1x CPI
  • Power Supply – 3.3V DC; Digital I/IO: 3.3V / 1.8V
  • Dimensions – 67.8 x 38.6 x 3 mm
  • Temperature Range – Commercial 0 to 70°C; Extended: -20 to 70°C, or Industrial: -40 to 85°C
VAR-SOM-AM43 Block Diagram

VAR-SOM-AM43 Block Diagram

VAR-SOM-AM43 modules support Linux 3.14 and Yocto 1.6 (Daisy) with Qt 5, and Android 4.4 support is coming soon. Software documentation is available on the module’s Wiki, and support on Variscite’s forums. The company also provides mechanical and hardware documentation including a product brief, a datasheet, and mechanical design files (DXF) for the module, as well as schematics and a datasheet for VAR-AM43CustomBoard, the baseboard used for development and/or evaluation. TI AM437x TRM can also be downloaded directly from TI website.

VAR-AM43CustomBoard

VAR-AM43CustomBoard Carrier Board

The baseboard has the following key features:

  • SODIMM-200 socket to support VAT-SOM-AM43 system-on-module
  • External Storage – micro SD socket
  • Connectivity – 2x Gigabit Ethernet
  • Display – 18-bit 3 pair LVDS interface; 4-wire touch panel and capacitive touch panel support
  • Audio – 3.5mm jacks for heaphone and line INl; digital microphone on-board
  • Camera – Parallel CMOS sensor interface
  • USB – 2x USB 2.0 host ports (including on OTG?), 1x micro USB port for debugging
  • Serial – 2x RS232 header (UART1 / UART3), micro USB debug port, RS485 header, 2x CAN buses
  • Expansion Headers – Several headers with access to 8-channel ADC, SD/MMC interface, SPI, I2C, McASP, and GPIOs
  • Misc – RTC + CR1225 battery socket, 4x buttons.
  • Power Supply – 5V DC input, 2.5mm DC jack
  • Dimensions – 11.1 x 8.6 x 2.4 cm

A complete evaluation kit (VAR-DVK-AM43) is also available with VAR-SOM-AM43 SoM, VAR-AM43CustomBoard baseboard, a 7″ WVGA LCD with resistive/capacitive touch, a power supply, an Ethernet cable, an RS232 debug cable, boot/rescue SD cards, and a DVD with documentation and source code.

Variscite Sitara AM437x modules and development kits are available now, with pricing starting at $42 in 1K order. Further information, including hardware documentation, may be found on Variscite’s VAR-SOM-AM43, VAR-AM43CustomBoard, and VAR-DVK-AM43 product pages.

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FOSDEM 2015 Schedule – January 31 – February 1 2015

January 29th, 2015 8 comments

FOSDEM (Free and Open Source Software Developers’ European Meeting) takes place every year during the first week-end of February. This year the developer-oriented event expects to bring over 5000 geeks to share ideas and collaborate on open source projects. Contrary to most other events, it’s free to attend, and you don’t even need to register, just show up. FOSDEM 2015 will take place on January 31- February 1 in Brussels.

Fosdem_2015There will be 551 sessions divided into 5 keynotes, 40 lightning talks, 6 certification exams, and with the bulk being developer rooms and main tracks,  divided into 7 main tracks this year: Languages, Performance, Time, Typesetting, Hardware, Security and Miscellaneous.

I’m not going to attend, but it’s still interested to see what will be talked about, and I’ve concocted my own little virtual program out of the main tracks and developers’ rooms. There’s a few minutes overlap between some talks on Sunday.. Oh well.

If you won’t be able to attend, you should be able to watch the video and access the slides in a few weeks, as most sessions will be recorded.

What is the current status of Allwinner support in upstream u-boot and the kernel, which SoCs are supported, and which features (sound, video, etc.) are supported ?

The linux-sunxi community has been slowly but steadily working on getting Allwinner SoCs like the A10 supported in upstream u-boot and the kernel.

This talk will present the current status of Allwinner support upstream. Which SoCs are supported and which ones are not (yet) supported ? Which blocks if the supported SoCs are supported, and which are not ? Why are some SoCs / blocks not supported, and what are the plans to get them supported ? This are some of the questions this talk tries to answer.

Not all free operating systems are feature-full POSIX systems. FreeRTOS is a minimal operating system which is designed to run on micro-controllers, and provide real-time scheduling. It is used in industrial automation and automotive.

A brief introduction to FreeRTOS, depending on audience preference, will be followed by either a hands-on workshop using PCs, or a demonstration on a board. The workshop includes how to get started, what can be done with it, and what type of features and pitfalls to expect from FreeRTOS.

As ADAS and infotainment require more electronics, using an hypervisor is a solution to gather multiple boards into one. Xvisor is an open source lightweight hypervisor for embedded systems that perfectly fits the needs of the automative industry. It is a complete monolithic type-1 hypervisor with full virtualization and paravirtualisation support, showing better performances than KVM. We, OpenWide and the Institute for Technological Research SystemX, are working on its port on i.MX6 boards.

F*watch is an infinitely hackable GPS watch with many sensors based on a 100% Free design. Everything is Free, from the PCB and watch housing design to the software stack. Moreover, only Free software tools have been used during the development.

F*watch. Why should your watch be different?

The talk describes the development process and shows a first prototype, along with performance measurements and future plans.

The lowRISC project was established in the summer of 2014 with the aim of producing a complete open-source System-on-Chip in volume, with low-cost development boards. Alex Bradbury, one of the co-founders of the project will discuss the progress to date and the path to the first test chip. lowRISC implements the open RISC-V instruction set architecture and is exploring ideas on improving security via tagged memory and increasing flexibility through the addition of RISC-V ‘Minion’ cores to implement soft peripherals. This talk will discuss the potential benefits of a fully open-source hardware ecosystem, the challenges of getting to first silicon, and how the open source community at large can help.

Digital cameras provide almost every feature you could want. But if they don’t, you are forced to upgrade or go without. CHDK is a project which allows you to program new functionality to the majority of Canon cameras, in either C, Lua, or Basic. The talk features background on the project, code, tools, and the methods of compiling and introducing a new firmware into the camera.

Over the course of 1 hour, Steven Goodwin will guide the audience through the entire process of taking a normal (proprietary) camera and converting it into an open source version by installing custom firmware on it. He will then cover some of the features available (such as the on-device scripting language) and continue by explaining how to build and debug your own functionality. Starting with simple grids, continuing with games, and time-lapse code. And ending with a fully recompiled firmware running on the device.

The video4linux kernel subsystem reports which colorspace the captured video uses. But what does that really mean, and what do you have to do to correctly reproduce those colors? This talk will dive into the crazy world of colorspaces and give you a practical guide to colorspace handling. I will also demonstrate colorspace handling, both right and wrong.

Kernel profiling tools status on ARM and ARM64: – perf status, – ARM and ARM64 support, – callchain unwinding mechanisms and support, – patches status: merged, pending, in development, – links to discussions (LKML) and patches.

The profiling tools in the kernel are changing at a fast pace. This talk is about the support for ARM and ARM64 architecture and the development of features for these architectures, namely the callchain unwinding. The presentation goes over: – the detailed description of the feature, – the methods used to do the callchain unwinding (fp, exidx, dwarf etc.), – the status of the on-going patches, – the remaining work to be done, – the links to patches, discussions on the mailing lists, – -if needed and if time allows- a demo of the feature.

Building a medical device requires to follow certain rules specially when health care depend on it. The presentation will explain how Yocto help us in Kaptalia to solve this issue. In particular we will focus on fast boot, update with unskilled user base, Bluetooth Low Energy, security and data privacy.

During this event we will show how our team succeeded to build our first OS, start from a company with medical expert only and no prior expertise on embedded systems. At the end, a live demonstration for using the the monitor and sensor will be held.

LAVA is a python service created by Linaro for testing software on hardware which accepts test jobs to perform on selected hardware to provide a black box to continuous integration tests. Bisecting is a technique for finding commit in version control system that broke the software. Git provides the powerful “git bisect” subcommand for this purposes. In this talk we give and introduction to LAVA and explain howto combine LAVA and git bisect to automatically find offending commits in the Linux kernel.

Prospero Technologies has made a Linux based Digital Video Recorder which constantly records all UK broadcast TV so that the consumer no longer needs to schedule recordings. This will be a talk on the technologies used to achieve this, the open source software on the consumer device and how you can build your own 30 channel DVR.

The final version of the DVR uses a Freescale i.MX6 CPU with a video processing unit running a Linux built with Yocto. The talk will cover how well this is supported by gstreamer and how we built a QT application to display our HTML5 interface.

More and more embedded projects require support for advance connectivity. With it, comes the requirement to enforce a better security as well as private data protection. Using the layer model of Yocto, we show how we can extract from a complex project such as Tizen, advance connectivity and security and apply it to any embedded project.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is growing fast and opens large opportunities to embedded Linux. Unfortunately traditional embedded Linux has been weak when it comes to security and complex connectivity enabling. Tizen which has been developed as a Linux base OS for connected object (phone, TV, car) is on the other side very well equipped in that area. We will start by explaining what is Tizen architecture and how it provides Security and Connectivity facilities on top of a base Linux. We will then show how Yocto and Tizen-meta can be used to create embedded devices which benefit from several years of work done by the Tizen community. In particular we will review : – the mandatory access control enabling in an embedded device – the enforcement of good behavior by applications – resource access control – connectivity layers – HTML5 App enabling. – multi user mode enabling.

The ARM LLVM backend has been around for many years and generates high quality code, yet there are still standard benchmarks where GCC is generating more efficient code than LLVM. The goal of this talk is to get a better understanding of why the GCC-generated code for those benchmarks is executing more efficiently and also about finding out what we need to do on the LLVM side to address those code generation deficiencies. This talk presents current performance numbers for the SPEC CPU benchmark suites on ARM, comparing the performance of LLVM and GCC, with the main focus on the SPEC CPU integer benchmarks. To dive a little bit deeper, we will also have a closer look at the generated assembly code of selected benchmarks where LLVM is performing worse than GCC and use the results of this performance analysis to point out potential code generation opportunities for LLVM.

Connectivity is crucial for Internet of Things concept. For moving devices like position data loggers is typical solution GSM network. I will show you how you can use different types of GSM network for your IoT projects.

GSM network is easy way how to connect almost any device to internet. There are lot of GSM modules on market from different vendors but all devices has one thing in common – AT commands. There is standardized AT commands set for GSM networks. Using AT command you can send text messages, read phone number from list on SIM card, connect to internet and much more. I will show you basic command set for HTTP communication using basic GSM module SIM900 and Arduino.

This talk will give an overview over the Linux backports project and how to use it. The Linux backports project makes it possible to use a driver from a recent Linux mainline kernel with an older kernel version.

When you have a vendor board support package which does not use a bleeding edge mainline kernel, like it is the case most times, but you want to use some driver from a bleeding edge Linux kernel you can use backports. Backports “automatically” generates a tar with many drivers from a specific Linux mainline kernel which can be used with older kernel versions.

In this talk I will describe how the backports project, with its compatibility layer, the spatches and the normal patches. For practical usage I will show how to use backports with your own kernel in addition I will give a brief overview on how to add a new driver to backports.

Patchwork is a toolkit for connecting various devices into a network of things or, in a more broad case – Internet of Things (IoT). The main goal of creating this toolkit is to have a lightweight set of components that can help to quickly integrate different devices (i.e. Arduino, Raspberry Pi, Plugwise, etc) into a smart environment and expose specific devices’ capabilities as RESTful/SOAP/CoAP/MQTT/etc services and data streams.

The key features of patchwork include:

  • Lightweight (no RAM-consuming sliced pie of Java and OSGi, only bare necessities)
  • Cross-platform (can be deployed on OSX/Linux/Windows, tested on Raspberry Pi and BeagleBone Black boards)
  • Language-agnostic (device agents can be written in any programming language, APIs can be consumed by app written in any programming language)
  • Easily deployable (no JARs, no Eggs or Wheels for the core components, just a single native binary with statically linked dependencies)
  • Easily extendable (integrate new devices without modification of the core components, drop in solution)
  • Interchangeable (not happy with current existing Device Gateway or Catalog? replace it with another implementation without breaking the infrastructure)
  • Not re-inventing the wheel (we re-use as many existing technologies and components as possible)

libcurl is the world’s most used and most popular Internet transfer library, already used in every imaginable sort of embedded device out there. How did this happen and how do you use libcurl to transfer data to or from your device?

Embedded devices are very often network connected these days. Network connected embedded devices often need to transfer data to and from them as clients, using one or more of the popular internet protocols.

Daniel once founded the project and is still lead developer and maintainer of the curl project, making curl and libcurl. He is also active within IETF and maintain several other open source projects. Daniel is employed by Mozilla.

This presentation will reveal the process of porting Tizen:Common to open source hardware developer boards with SoC manufactured by Allwinner, Rockchip or Intel such as OLinuXino, Radxa Rock, Minnowboard. The following topics will be covered:

  • Building Tizen ARMv7 and x86 images from scratch
  • Adapting the Linux kernel, bootloader and Tizen:Common to popular single board computers
  • Do it yourself (DIY) open-source hardware Tizen tablet or laptop
  • Sharing knowledge and experience of the community.
The presentation will also provide information about U-Boot, Yocto project, the Linux-Sunxi and Linux-Rockchip, Minnowboard communities.

Although Tegra K1 uses the same Kepler architecture as NVIDIA desktop cards that Nouveau already supports, there are other challenges that need to be addressed before Nouveau can drive K1’s graphic acceleration: the fact that the GPU does not reside on the PCI bus requires architectural changes in the Nouveau core. The absence of dedicated GPU memory directly interferes with the way Nouveau is used to do memory management and leads to potentially sub-optimal behavior. Also, in a system where all devices share the same system memory, PRIME support is mandatory to perform any useful work and the relevance of a driver-agnostic memory allocator becomes perceptible.

This talk will discuss these challenges, and in particular the consequences of using a unified memory architecture, in the hope of triggering discussions that will help improving the general support of GPU architectures for new mobile platforms.

A brief look at the past, present, and future of the KiCad project. The discussion will be primarily on what near and long term future development is planned for the project as well as discussing the potential for collaboration with other EDA projects.

Yocto has an alleged steep learning curve. It can be a challenge for modules and evaluation board manufacturers to add support for their devices in Yocto as they don’t necessarily have a software background. This talk will highlight the steps required, techniques and good practices to create a well integrated machine configuration allowing to build images using the Yocto Linux build system. The Crystalfontz support from meta-fsl-arm-extra will be used to illustrate the talk.

The bitbox console is a small open hardware & open source game console. I will present the rationale behind it and the current status of the project, detail the hardware conception and particularly video signal generation from a cortex-m4 chip with no video subsystem. I will then proceed to show the different elements of the software stack : kernel, video engines, the boot loader and, finally, current programs and games, including a Gameboy emulator and a full motion video player.

If you want to build your own schedule before going, you can check the full list of events by subjects, but an easier way to organize your day is to check the sessions in chronological order, by checking out Saturday and Sunday schedules.

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