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Infineon Claims to Have Implemented Post-Quantum Cryptography on a Contactless Security Chip

May 31st, 2017 4 comments

Today we protect systems, data, and communication using encryption keys of various lengths together with secure algorithms, and after a quick check, I found out banking websites are using 128-bit to 256-bit keys for secure (TLS v1.2) communication, and my Linux system is using a 4096-bit RSA key for secure communication over SSH. According to an Infineon press release, such key length are suitable for secure communication today, and current computer do not have sufficient processing power to break encryption, but with the advance of Quantum computer, even RSA-2048 keys won’t be secure, which means in 15 to 20 years all data encrypted (and stored) today with such keys would theoretically be accessible in the clear.

That’s why the company has been working on next-generation post-quantum cryptography (PQC), and recently demonstrated the first PQC implementation on a commercially available contactless security chip, as used for electronic ID documents.

The company explains further:

Security experts at Infineon’s Munich headquarters and the Center of Excellence for contactless technologies in Graz, Austria, made a breakthrough in this field. They implemented a post-quantum key exchange scheme on a commercially available contactless smart card chip. Key exchange schemes are used to establish an encrypted channel between two parties. The deployed algorithm is a variant of “New Hope”, a quantum-resistant cryptosystem also explored successfully by Google on a development version of the Chrome browser.

The main challenge was to keep the small chip size and memory with the more complex PQC algorithm, and also to get the transaction to execute in a reasonable amount of time. They managed to do this on a commercial available security chip without requiring additional memory space. Those advances should also for security equivalent to today’s RSA and ECC at a time when quantum computer become available. Going forward, there will need to be one or more PQC algorithms standardized before government and industries mandate the migration.

Via ElectronicsWeekly.

Infineon Showcases the Radar Board used in Google’s Project Soli, and Sense2Go Development Kit (Video)

June 30th, 2016 2 comments

Google’s Project Soli sensing technology uses a miniature radar to detect touchless gesture interactions, so that you can control devices such as wearables using gestures without having to physical touch the product. The 60 GHz radar technology used in the project has been developed by Infineon, and the company was recently interviewed by Arrow Electronics where they showcased Soli board, as well as another 24 GHz radar development kit called Sense2Go.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

The Soli board called BGT60TR24 features Infineon XMC4500 ARM Cortex M4 MCU, and a 60 GHz “CRIS20” radar chip designed specially for Project Soli by Infineon, and allowing 20mm resolution, falling to less than one millimeter with Google’s algorithms. The micro USB port will be used for power and programming. This board should be the one included in Project Soli development kit to be shipped to developers this fall.

Infineon also have a Sense2Go 24GHz sensor development kit that can detect motion, speed, and direction of movement in applications such as indoor/outdoor smart lighting, intruder alarm, motion detectors, intelligent door openers, and more.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

Sense2Go board specifications:

  • MCU – Infineon XMC 4200 ARM Cortex M4 MCU @ 80 MHz with 256 KB flash, 40 KB RAM
  • Radar – BGT24MTR11 24 Ghz radar transmitter and receiver IC
  • USB – 1x micro USB port
  • Debugging – Cortex debug connector
  • Misc – 2x User LEDs, 2x 10-pin headers
  • Power – 5V via micro USB port or header
  • Dimensions – 4 x 3.5 cm

The CPU is already preprogrammed using Infineon’s DAVE development tool, and the module comes bundled with a standalone firmware for movement detection without the aid of a PC. It samples up to 2 IF channels of the transceiver chipset and communicates via USB interface to a connected PC, and provided PC application GUI (Windows XP/Vista/7/8) can be used to display and analyze acquired data in time and frequency domain.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

The kit also includes a User’s Manual, schematic and Bill-of-Materials of the module, and a micro USB-to-USB cable. Sense2Go can be purchased from various distributors using part number, including Future Electronics ($244) and Avnet.

Rockchip RK6321 Dual Core Cortex A5 SoC Targets Wearables with WiFi, Bluetooth, 3G and GPS

October 15th, 2015 13 comments

RK6321Rockchip and Intel started to work on a platform called XMM6321 last year. It featured a dual Core Cortex A5 processor, 3G connectivity, WiFi, and GPS, which was aimed at entry level 3G smartphones and tablets. Fast forward to 2015, Rockchip showcased their RK6321 processor at the Hong Kong Electronics Fair, with very similar specifications compared to XMM6321, but instead it targets wearables such as smartwatches, or children and elderly tracker.

So I’ m not quite sure whether Intel XMM6321 and Rockchip RK6321 are the same processor with a different name, or Rochchip tweaked RK6321 specifically for wearables.

Key features of Rockchip RK6321 processor:

  • CPU – Two Cortex A5 cores up to 1GHz with 32KB L1 D-cache, 32KB L1 I-cache, and 512KB L2 cache
  • GPU – Supports OpenGL ES 2.0
  • Memory and Storage I/F – 16-bit LP-DDR2 SDRAM, 8-bit  eMMC, 16-bit NAND
  • Display I/F – MIPI DSI up to FWVGA resolution (854×480)
  • Video / Camera
    • 1080p video playback
    • 720p30 video recording
    • MIPI CSI-2 interface for 8MP YUV/RAW camera
    • 2MP front camera I/F
  • Cellular Connectivity
    • 3GPP Rel-9 HSPA 21/5.8 Mbps, 3G/2G dual-SIM dual-standby dual hot-swap with DvP (what is that?)
    • 3G quad-band, 2G quad band SCPA (Single Carrier Power Amplifier), or separate PX’s DCXO (Digitally Controlled Oscillators) support
    • Infineon / Intel solution
  • Connectivity – 802.11 b/g/n, Bluetooth 4.0 LE, FM radio, and A-GPS, GPS, GLONASS

Rockchip_SmartwatchCurrent solutions run Android 4.4.4 with a smartwatch specific user interface, and Rockchip does not plan support for Android 5.x, “as it’s mainly a 64-bit operating systems, and Android Kitkat does the job” (paraphrase). The company also released some power consumption number as shown in the tablet below, but I’m not quite sure how they compare to competing solution such as Mediatek MT2501.

RK6321_Power_Consumption

Source: Sunning View

Charbax interviewed the company at the Hong Kong Electronics Fair, where Rockchip showcased some RK6321 based trackers and smartwatches, as well as a development kit.

The factory price of the smartwatch in the video above, which includes WiFi, Bluetooth, GPS, and 3G connectivity, is said to be $49. There’s no product page on Rockchip website, but eventually it should be listed with other Rockchip processors.

Infineon XMC 2Go Cortex M0 Development Kit Sells for 5 Euros

September 15th, 2014 4 comments

Infineon brought another tiny, portable, and cheap ARM Cortex M0 board to market with XMC 2Go development kit featuring XMC1100 ARM Cortex M0 micro-controller with 16KB RAM, 64KB Flash, and tow breadboard friendly headers to access various serial interfaces and ADC pins.

 

Infineon_XMC_2GoKey features listed on Infineon website:

  • MCU – Infineon XMC1100 ARM Cortex-M0 MCU @ 32 MHz with 64KB flash, 16KB RAM.
  • Debugger – On-board J-Link Lite Debugger using an XMC4200 Microcontroller.
  • Headers – 2×8 pin headers suitable for Breadbord with access to 2x USIC (Universal Serial Interface Channel: UART, SPI, I2C, I2S, LIN), 6x 12-bit ADC, external interrupts (via ERU), 4x 16-bit timers
  • Misc – 2 x user LED, RTC
  • Power – 5V Micro via USB, or 3.3V external power. ESD and reverse current protection
  • Dimensions – 14.0 x 38.5 mm

XMC1100_Development_BoardThe board is programmed via USB using the same Dave IDE I tried with XMC4500 Relax Lite Kit. Documentation includes PCB design data, the board’s user manual, and various documents to get started. The board has been released in March, so some people have already played with it (Link in Polish), and another ran some Arduino code on the board (in English!).

You can find more information and purchase the board on Infineon’s XMC 2Go page. The board is sold for 5 Euros + shipping, but you can also find it on Mouser and Digikey for about $6 to $12.

Infineon Hexagon Application Kit (XMC4500 Enterprise Edition) Overview and Quick Start Guide

February 11th, 2013 No comments

A few months ago, Infineon sent me XMC4500 Relax Lite Kit for review, and I wrote a short Getting Started Guide about this 10 Euros Cortex M4 devkit. This month, I’ve received another XMC4500 kit with more features and expansion abilities: XMC4500 Enterprise Edition which is one of their Hexagon Application Kit. I received two packages:

  • CPU Board XMC4500 General Purpose (CPU_45A-V2) with accessories (55 Euros) – This is what you get when you order to Basic Kit.
  • J-Link Lite Cortex-M Debugger (40 Euros)
XMC4500 Hexagon Board (Left) & JLink Debugger (Right)

XMC4500 Hexagon Board (Left) & JLink Debugger (Right)

Let’s open the packages and see what’s inside.

Hexagon Application Kit XMC4500 Enterprise Edition

Hexagon Application Kit XMC4500 Enterprise Edition (Click to Enlarge)

In the first package, we’ve got XMC4500 CPU board, a pin extension board that can be used on any of the 3 extension connectors of the CPU board to access the signals easily, and a microUSB to USB cable for power. The JLink debugger comes with a 10-pin ribbon cable, and a microUSB to USB cable to connect to the CPU board and start debugging.

A closer look at the board shows all components and connectors are soldered at the top.

CPU_45A-V2 Board (Click to Enlarge)

CPU_45A-V2 Board (Click to Enlarge)

Since this is the first time I write about this board, I should mention the full specifications:

  • MCU – Infineon XMC4500-F144K1024 Cortex M4F @ 120 MHz
  • Memory – On-Chip Memory: 160 KB SRAM, 1024 KB Flash
  • Interfaces:
    • USB Connector (Micro-AB USB)
    • Cortex Debug+ETM Connector (20-pin)
    • Cortex Debug Connector (10-pin)
    • DriveMonitor2 Connector (10-pin + 6-pin)
    • 3 Satellite Connectors (80-pin edge card) – HMI (Human Machine Interface), COM (Communication), and ACT (Actuator)
    • Power Scale Connector (for power measurement)
  • 5 LEDs (3x power, user, and reset)
  • Potentiometer for ADC
  • 2-pin DIP switch for Hardware boot mode selection (Embedded Flash, UART or CAN)
XMC4500 CPU Board Block Diagram

XMC4500 CPU Board Block Diagram

Putting the kit together is very easy, and you can’t go wrong, since they made it impossible to connect the ribbon cable in the wrong location.

Assembled XMC4500 Board and JLink Debugger

Assembled XMC4500 Board and JLink Debugger

You can now connect both USB cables to your computer, and you should be the preloaded app runs, and the user LED (connected to P3.9) blink. The 3 power LEDs (VDD5, VDD3, and VDD5USB) should all be lit.

There’s no printed documentation with the board, but there’s a small card that reads “For tools, software and documentation please visit us at www.infineon.com/xmc_kits“. But once you get there, you might be confused at first, as you won’t find any tools, software or documentation, until you click on a kit, scroll down a bit to more to find “Users Manual “CPU Board XMC4500 General Purpose”. This document provides a pretty good hardware description of the CPU, but still nothing about development. So what you have to do is actually download and install DAVE 3.  The good thing is that it’s exactly the same procedure as with the Relax Lite Kit, so I can refer you to Getting Started with Infineon XMC4500 Relax Lite Kit and DAVE 3 IDE post, and the only thing you need to change is to select “Infineon Hexagon Application Kit XMC4500 Series” instead of “Infineon XMC4500 Relax Kit” in the “Debug Configurations” window. The other difference is that I’m now using Ubuntu 12.04, so I had to run Dave 3 in a virtual machine running Windows 7 in VirtualBox. I had to make sure VirtualBox Additions were installed, together with the “Extension Pack” (for USB support), and select Devices->Select USB Device->Segger JLINK in VirtualBox. The first time you run the debugger, a window will pop up “SEGGER J-Link V4.56 Firmware Update”. So I’ve tried to carry on with the firmware upgrade and it would time out after 45 seconds (After around 95% of upgrade is done). It does not matter, you can skip this step, and continue to run the application. It seems the sample app “LEDTS001_cb” is also not designed to run on this particular board, but the program was running as pressing the reset button would interrupt execution.

Another good thing about the Hexagon Application Kits is that you can connect satellite boards either by buying some specific kits, or buying one of the following add-ons boards separately:

  • Standard Machine Human Interface Kit (HMI_OLED-V1) – 1.54″ OLED display + microSD slot, 2.5mm stereo jack… Satellite connected to HMI connector. Price: 89 Euros.
  • Ethernet/CAN/RS485 Kit – Connected to COM connector (COM_ETH-V1) – 10/100Mbps Ethernet (RJ45), – CAN transceiver (DE-9 male), RS-485 transceiver, full-duplex, bootable (DE-9 female). Satellite connected to COM connector. Price: 79 Euros.
  • Automation I/O Kit (AUT_ISO-V1) – ISOFACE OUT (up to 8 channels), ISOFACE IN (up to 8 channels), I2C based IO expander (up to 8 channels). Satellite connected to ACT connector. Price: 79 Euros.
  • General Purpose Motor Drive Kit (MOT_GPDLV-V2) – Satellite connected to ACT connector. Price: 99 Euros.

Getting Started with Infineon XMC4500 Relax Lite Kit and DAVE 3 IDE

December 13th, 2012 9 comments

Infineon Relax Lite Kit is a 10 Euros development kit based on Infineon XMC4500 Cortex M4 MCU with 160 KB SRAM and 1 MB flash, and featuring 2 USB OTG ports for debugging and powering up the board, 3 buttons (including reset), 2 LEDs, and 2 headers (through holes) giving access to the signals from the MCU such SPI, I2C, I2S, UART, CAN, ADC, DAC and PMW.

The kit if available online via Hitec, but unless you live in Germany, this is not an interesting option, as international shipping costs over 100 Euros. So you’d better check local distributors in your country.

The package only comes with the board, and you’ll need a USB to microUSB to power the board. To get started, simply connect the board via the USB cable to one of the USB OTG connectors, and to a Windows PC. The power LED (green) should lit up, the debug LED blink quickly, and the factory default program will blink a red LED (LED2). You can then turn on/off LED 1 and 2 with the respective buttons (BUTTON 1 & 2).

To really get started with development, you’ll need to visit http://www.infineon.com/xmc-dev, download the user manuals and install DAVE 3 toolchain.

But first let’s have a a closer look at the board itself.

The board is composed of 2 parts: the MCU board (right) and the on-board debugger by SEGGER (left). The on-board debugger is detachable, by pressing the board. I haven’t tried to detach it though.

Top of XMC4500 Relax Kit Lite Board (Click to Enlarge)

You can notice places for unsoldered components on the MCU board, this is for Ethernet, microSD socket, RTC, and QSPI flash on the XMC4500 Relax Kit.

Bottom of XMC4500 Relax Kit Lite Board (Click to Enlarge)

The bottom of the board has marking for the header pin, bu apart from GND and VDD, those refer to the pin numbers instead of the function, so you’ll have to look up in the user’s manual.
Let’s install DAVE 3 IDE. This is only available for Windows. Fist download DAVE 3 (I chose  DAVE 3.1.4 installer package: DAVE-3_1_4_Installer-2012-11-5.zip), and install both DAVE 3.1.4 and SEGGER-JLink ARM v4.56.

Start Dave-3.1.4, select a workspace directory as requested, and install XMC4500 examples and libraries:

  1. Click on Help->Install DAVE Apps/Example Library
  2. In Dave Site section, click on Library Update sites.
  3. Go to General->Network Connection, and select Direct for Active Provider. I had to do this or I was unable to connect to infineon site to download the apps and libs below.
  4. Still in Library Update sites window, go to Dave->Library Manager->Library Update Sites and validate both entries: http://dave.infineon.com/Libraries/DAVEApps/XMC4500/v3.1/ and http://dave.infineon.com/Libraries/Examples/XMC4000/, and click OK.
  5. Select DAVE App Library Manager in Work Withmenu, and after a little while, you should see 2 entries:
    • Library_DAVEApps
    • Library_DAVEDeviceDescription

    Select both, click Next, accept the terms, and click Finish to complete the download and installation of the libraries.

  6. To install apps, select DAVE Project Library Manager in Work With menu, and follow the same procedure as in step 5. You may want to only select the sample apps you want. I selected all of them (Around 60), and it took over 2 hours to download and import.

There are all sorts of demo apps from simple apps showing how to use peripherals (LED, UART, PWM, I2C, etc..) to more complex apps such as webserver and motor control apps.

Let’s take something easy with an app that controls LEDs and buttons. Right click on LEDTS001_Example1 in C/C++ Projects window on the right, and select Set Active Project.

LEDTS001_Example1 Project in DAVE 3 Eclipse GUI (Click to Enlarge)

You can select other project within the C/C++ Projects windows, or with the App Selection View window of the left. However, for some reasons, the latter only shows 4 projects in my system…

Let’s check the source code of the selected application by clicking on main.c. There are just three function in the main:

  • DAVE_Init – Initializes some “app” init functions
  • LEDTS001_Start – Starts the LED-TS App based on User provided configuration
  • LEDTS001_RegisterCallback – Registers the callback function (LEDTS001_cb) that will turn on/off the LEDs on button presses

Click on Project->Build Active Project in the top menu to build the sample app. The build output is shown in the console window at the bottom of the IDE.

Upon successful build, click on Debug->Debug or type F11 to start running on debugging the program on the platform.

Debugger Configuration for XMC4500 Relax Kit

But first, you’ll have to configure the debugger to use Infineon XMC4500 Relax Kit with J-Link over USB (SWD) connection as shown in the screenshot above. Now click on Debug to launch the app and switch to TASKING Debug mode in the IDE, as see windows for the source code in C and Assembler, a console to the board,  view register and memory, assign breakpoints and more…

Dave 3 TASKING Debug (Click to Enlarge)

You can switch between TASKING Debug and other views such as DAVE CE and DAVE IDE by clicking on “>>” at the top right of the IDE.

The system will load the app and break at the main. To run the application, click on Debug->Resume. That’s it, the program you’ve just build now runs on the devkit.

Unfortunately, it seems this application does not work for the board, as pressing the buttons does not result in LED lighting up, and breakpoints inside the callback function are not hit… Maybe I did something incorrectly, but I suppose the source code may need to be changed. This defeats a bit the purpose of having sample apps…

DAVE 3 also does not like bad network connection and incorrect settings, so if those happen it may just hang there, and the Cancel button is virtually useless. DAVE 3.1.4 is a beta version which may explain it. But apart from those few shortcomings, DAVE 3 IDE appears to be a decent development IDE with lots of features, and the App Store for XMC4500 Relax Kit (lite) could also be an asset when learning about the platform, as long as available apps work.

Infineon Unveils Low Cost XMC4500 Relax & Relax Lite Kits For Cortex M4 XMC4500 MCUs

November 15th, 2012 No comments

Infineon XMC4500 micro-controller family is based on ARM Cortex-M4 core @ 120 MHz, comes with 128 to 160 KB SRAM, 512 KB to 1 MB “Program Memory” as well as interfaces & peripherals, such as DMA, Ethernet, USB, ADC, DAC, SPI, I2C, I2S, UART and more. They are specifically designed for industrial applications supporting temperatures up to 125°C. The family was announced at Embedded World 2012 in February, and mass production started in May. This week at Electronica 2012, the company announced two low cost development kits for XMC4500 MCU:

  • XMC4500 Relax Lite Kit (10 Euros):
    • XMC4500 Microcontroller (ARM® Cortex™-M4F based)
    • Detachable on-board debugger
    • Power over USB
    • ESD and reverse current protection
    • 2 x user button and 2 x user LED
    • 4 x SPI-Master, 3x I2C, 3 x I2S, 3 x UART, 2 x CAN, 17 x ADC (12 bit), 2 x DAC, 31x PMW mapped on 2 Pin Headers 2 x 20 0.1”
    • Micro-USB plug
  • XMC4500 Relax Kit (30 Euros) based on XMC4500 Relax Lite Kit plus the following features:
    • Ethernet PHY and RJ45 jack
    • Real Time Clock crystal
    • 32 Mbit Quad-SPI Flash
    • microSD card slot

Development can be done with the free DAVE 3 development tools that include:

  • An IDE based on Eclipse
  • A GNU Compiler & Debugger
  • Data visualization utilities
  • DAVE Apps, an Auto-Code Generator for both low and high level code

Documentation currently includes an (hardware) user manual and PCB design files. I cannot find source code samples, but I suppose this might be included in DAVE 3. Support is available with the Microcontroller forum, or Infineon website.

You can check the block diagram below for a better overview on the kits’ capabilities and features.

XMC4500 Relax & Relax Lite Kits Block Diagram

Infineon has uploaded several videos showing how to use their low cost development kit, including the one below that describes both kits, shows an LED and button demo on the Relax Lite and an embedded web server running on the Relax Kit. Finally it shows how to detach the debug board from the target and how to reconnect it later on if needed.

You can find more information on Infineon XMC4500 Relax / Relax Lite Kit page.

Atollic TrueSTUDIO for ARM 3.0 To Be Released at Embedded World 2012

February 21st, 2012 No comments

Atollic has just announced  that Atollic TrueSTUDIO for ARM 3.0 – a C/C++ development tool for embedded developers –  will be released on the 28th of February 2012, at Embedded World 2012,  Nuremberg, Germany.

Software tools for ARM

New GUI of Atollic Truestudio 3 for ARM

Atollic TrueSTUDIO v3.0 will bring the following improvements:

  • Redesigned user interface that is more intuitive to C/C++ developers
  • New support for NXP LPC1000 Cortex-M0 and Cortex-M3 devices
  • New support for Infineon XMC4000 Cortex-M4 devices
  • New support for Energy Micro EFM32 (Cortex-M3)
  • Upgraded support for STMicroelectronics STM32 devices
  • Improved real-time interrupt tracing with ARM Serial Wire Viewer (SWV) interface.
  • Execution time profiling now present information using bar charts
  • Upgraded ECLIPSE platform to the latest “Indigo” release (3.7.1)
  • Major upgrade of the GNU command line tools
  • Upgraded TrueINSPECTOR, TrueANALYZER and TrueVERIFIER add-on products
  • Supports over 800 ARM devices
  • Hundreds of minor improvements

Since the product has not been released, that’s currently all information there is.  Further information will certainly be provided the date of the release. In the meantime, if you have interested in a C/C++ IDE ((similar to Eclipse) for embedded systems, you can read me previous posts entitled “Select an ARM MCU during Development with Atollic TrueSTUDIO for ARM” for an overview of Atollic Truestudio.