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Posts Tagged ‘power’

DIY Power Measurement Board

July 23rd, 2014 6 comments

When I review media player or development boards, I’m often asked about power consumption figures. One way to measure power consumption is to use a Kill-a-Watt, but for low power devices it’s not always accurate enough, and it also includes the heat dissipation from the power adapter, which may or may not be useful depending on what you want to measure. For USB powered devices or boards, an easy way to measure power consumption is to use CHARGER Doctor, a small $5 USB dongle that displays both voltage and current alternatively. Unfortunately, most products I’ve received lately use barrel type connectors, so this little tool has not been as useful as I hoped. The only solution is then to measure voltage and current with a multimeter. Voltage is measured in parallel, so you just need to point the multimeter’s leads where you want to perform the measurements. However, the current is measure in series, so you need to insert the multimeter in the circuit somehow. A few possibilities:

  1. Unsoldering a component on the board to place the multimeter in series.
  2. Cut one wire of the power cable to insert the multimeter.
  3. Get and make a board to insert the multimeter.

Solutions 1 and 2 are not really desirable, so I decided to look into solution 1, and since I could not find any board that could match my requirements, I decided to work out a solution by myself allowing various power inputs and outputs.

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

The board can take power adapter using micro USB, mini USB or 5.5/2.1mm barrel connectors, 32 different output connectors thanks to two cables, and header pins are used to connect the multimeter’s leads.

Here’s the different components required for this solution:

  • 1x perfboard or veroboard
  • Some 2.54mm pin headers (straight and right angle)
  • micro USB breakout board – $1.50 on Adafruit, but shipping + insurance was $12, so instead I purchased 5x micro USB charging board for $4.24 on Ebay (asp_ezone)
  • mini USB breakout board – $1.95 on Sparkfun, but shipping killed it again, so I purchase 2x mini USB charging boards for $2.75 on asp_ezone shop.
  • 5.5/2.1mm DC power socket -  $4.18 for 10 pieces
  • USB Female DIP Socket Connector – $1.73 for 10 pieces
  • 6-in-1 Universal USB charging cable – $3.41
  • Universal 28-in-1 DC power socket / plug converter for laptop – $11.30

If you purchase everything from scratch the cost would be around $35.

In case the introduction is not clear, the board description below may help.

Power_Measurement_Board_Description

Iv’e also included the back of the board with the soldering for reference.

Power_Measurement_Board_BackAfter double checking I had made mistake inverting GND and VCC, which could be fatal, I tried it out by making some power measurements with Tronsmart Vega S89 Elite.

Tronsmart_Vega_S89_Elite_Power_Off_Power_ConsumptionIn power off mode, I get 115 mA (~ 575 mW @ 5V), so I’m confident it’s working just fine… Unfortunately, I quickly realized something is wrong as the boot does not complete most of the time, as it reaches 1A, the boot just simply stops, or I just get a blue screen. Only once or twice did I managed to get to the home screen (about 0.52A after most background tasks are done), but starting an app will hang the system most of the time. So  I’ve tried to replace the multimeter by a breadboard female to female cable, and everything works normally. So I suspect the contact surface with the leads is not large enough, or the multimeter introduces some noise that disturbs the device…. I’ll get some crocodile clips to see if things work out better…

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Categories: Hardware Tags: how-to, power, tutorial

iFans EL-PB-17 is a 3-in-1 USB Wall Charger with a Battery and an SD Card Slot

May 27th, 2014 2 comments

I’ve noticed TYLT ENERGY 2K a USB wall charger with an internal 2,300 mAh battery, is currently on Kickstarter for $20, and received some press coverage. The main advantages of this system is that it saves space ,and you don’t need to remember charging your phone and your USB power bank separately, it will just charge both within 3 to 4 hours. However, since I’ve recently purchased a USB solar power bank with a 30,000 mAh battery (actual 8,000 to 10,000 mAh) for about $25, I thought there must be better options with a larger batter and similar price, or cheaper price with a similar battery size. It turns out there aren’t so many options, but I did find NewTrent Travelpak Plus with a 7,000 mAH battery that sells for about $40 on Amazon and even $19 on Ebay. But I’ve found a product even more original and versatile with E-link Technology’s iFans EL-PB-17 that can either be a simple USB wall charger, a standalone 3,000 mAh power bank, a USB wall charger with internal battery, or an SD card reader.

ifans_usb_wall_charger_with_batteryJust like TYLT charger it has a US-type foldable plug, but you can also use the power bank directly, if you wish to charge it from your PC or laptop for example. If you combine the AC adapter with the 3,000 mAh, you can charge your phone / tablet and power bank in one go, and it’s small enough to carry easily.

Here are the specifications listed on the company website:

  • Battery
    • Capacity – Lithium Ion 3,000 mAh
    • Input – DC 5V – 800 mAh
    • Battery Output – DC 5V – 1A
    • Misc – Power button, battery life indicators
  • USB Wall Charger
    • Input – AC 100~240 V ~50/60Hz, 0.15 A
    • Output – DC 5V – 1A

If you’re thinking it could do a neat ARM board / device UPS, it may not work as expected because there might be a delay while switching between AC power to battery (TBC). At least, this is the way TYLT charger works.

I could not find this exact model for sale anywhere yet, but the 2-in-1 model (also called EL-PB-17?), without an SD card reader, for $29.99 on Amazon or $36.99 on Aliexpress.

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Categories: Hardware Tags: power, usb

USB Solar Power Bank Review

February 21st, 2014 8 comments

A few months ago, I won a $5 coupon for DealExtreme, and decided to buy a “Portable 5V (30,000mAh) Li-ion Battery Solar Power Bank w/ Dual USB + LED – Black + White” for just over $20. For the price, solar charging was a nice bonus, and the 30,000 mAh was probably a “mistake” but it did not really matter. The SKU is gone, but 1BA-2 Solar power bank ($23.97) appears to be a very similar product. I did not plan to write about this gadget, but a few things happened that made me change my mind.

First. it took over two months to reach me, instead of the usual 2 to 4 weeks. I ordered on the 9th of November 2013, and received the package on the 25th of January 2014. The reason being that the package got declined by Thai immigration (I live in Thailand). DealExtreme could not explain me why, but I assume it could be because of stricter regulations regarding batteries. They then sent the power bank via Sweden Post which usually takes an awful lot of time, as it goes to Sweden first, before coming back to Asia.

But let’s check the device itself which I received in the parcel below.

Solar_USB_Power_Bank
You’ll find the power bank, a USB cable, adapters (mini USB, micro USB, and proprietary crap for Samsung, Nokia, and Apple devices), a user’s manual entirely in Chinese mentioning the model is XHL-2000 or XHL-3000, and a pouch.

Solar_USB_power_Bank_Accesories
On the power bank, you’ll get 2 USB output (1A and 2A), a power button to start charging, or lit up the white LED (long press), a micro USB port to charge with a power adapter, and 4 blue LEDs to indicate charging status and current charge level.

Click to Enlarge

It came with a charge and I could charge my phone a couple of times. Then I decided to charge it outside, placing it on a location with good sun exposure (a roof) to see how fast it would charge, and after 6 days, the charge level showed 2 LEDs on (26% to 50% charge).

Chiang_Mai_Winter_Weather_SunIt’s winter here, so it might charge faster when temperature and day length rises. It got about 7 hours direct daily sun exposure. The weather during the test is shown on the right. The power bank will also charge when it’s cloudy or there are shadows, albeit probably at a slower rate.

I could charge my phone (1800 mAh battery) twice after 6 days of charge. That means a full charge would typically take between 10 and 20 days depending on conditions, and that you can’t expect to charge your phone daily with this device.

I should have known this at the time of purchase based on the specifications:

  • Solar Panel – 1.5W
  • Capacity – 30,000 mAh/111wh
  • Input – 5V/1A
  • Output – 5V/1A and 5V/2.1A
  • Dimensions – 120x75x26mm
  • Weight – 350g
  • Temperature range – -20 to 65 C

Under ideal & theoretical conditions charging at 1.5W for 10 hours day would take over 7 days to fully charge the power bank.

If instead of charging with solar power, I use a standard 5V/2A power adapter, the power bank can be fully charged within 9h30. I can then charge my phone about four times, which means the actual capacity is closer to 8,000 or 10,000 mAh instead of the 30,000 mAh advertised. Charging my phone from the power bank takes about 2h10 from the 5V/2A output (15% to 100%), and 2h55 from the 5V/1A (9% to 100%), which is only slightly longer than using directly a power adapter.

I’ve also tried to open this gadget, but failed to completely dissemble it.. I could however see it’s based on four 3.7V Lithium-ion batteries as found in mobile phones without being able to read the capacity. You may also want to remove the plastic protection for better efficiency.

Solar_Panel_Power_Bank

In any case, I got taught a few lessons, some of which I already knew:

  • Purchasing batteries overseas may be a problem with customs due to new regulations.
  • Specifications can be wrong or misleading (no kidding)
  • Some people sell products with virtually useless features (with regards to solar charging)
  • Sweden post can be terribly slow

I’ll still use this power bank, especially when traveling, but I’ll keep charging my phone the old-fashioned way, i.e. with a power adapter, for now.

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Categories: Hardware Tags: power, review, smartphone, solar, usb

Linux Kernel 3.13 Release

January 20th, 2014 3 comments

Linus Torvalds announced the release of Linux Kernel 3.13 yesterday:

The release got delayed by a week due to travels, but I suspect that’s just as well. We had a few fixes come in, and while it wasn’t a lot, I think we’re better off for it. At least I hope so – I’ll be very disappointed if any of them cause more problems than they fix..

Anyway, the patch from rc8 is fairly small, with mainly some small arch updates (arm, mips, powerpc, s390, sparc, x86 all had some minor changes, some of them due to a networking fix for the bpf jit). And drivers (mainly gpu and networking). And some generic networking fixes. The appended shortlog gives more details.

Anyway, with this, the merge window for 3.14 is obviously open.

Kernel 3.12 brought new features to BTRFS and XFS file systems, PC’s GPU drivers improvements, better memory handling, and more. The key changes made in Linux 3.13 are as follows:

  • Scalable block layer for high performance SSD storage – This release includes a new design for the Linux block layer, based on two levels of queues: one level of per-CPU queues for submitting IO, which then funnel down into a second level of hardware submission queues. The mapping between submission queues and hardware queues might be 1:1 or N:M, depending on hardware support and configuration. Experiments shown that this design can achieve many millions of IOs per second, leveraging the new capabilities of NVM-Express or high-end PCI-E devices and multicore CPUs, while still providing the common interface and convenience features of the block layer. Read Linux Block IO: Introducing Multi-queue SSD Access on Multi-core Systems for details.
  • nftables, the successor of iptables – nftables is a new packet filtering framework that solves iptables problems and limitations, while providing backwards compatibility for current iptable users. A new user-space tool called nftables, and a new library (libnftables) are available. How-to of the new utility and syntax is available here. Video talk about nftables: http://youtu.be/P58CCi5Hhl4 (slides). Project page and utility source code: http://netfilter.org/projects/nftables/
  • Radeon: power management enabled by default, automatic GPU switching, R9 290X Hawaii support
  • Power capping framework – This release includes a framework that allow to set power consumption limits to devices that support it. It has been designed around the Intel RAPL (Running Average Power Limit) mechanism available in the latest Intel processors (Sandy Bridge and later, many devices will also be added RAPL support in the future). Documentation can be found here.
  • Support for the Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture – This release adds support for the Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture or MIC. Tianhe-2 at the National Supercomputing Center in Guangzhou, China, utilizes this architecture to achieve 33.86 PetaFLOPS.
  • Improved performance in NUMA systems – Modern multiprocessors (for example, x86) usually have non-uniform memory access (NUMA) memory designs. Linux 3.8 included a new NUMA foundation that would allow to build smarter NUMA policies in future releases, many of which are implemented in 3.13. Artcile: NUMA scheduling progress
  • Improved page table access scalability in hugepage workloads – The Linux kernels tracks information about each memory page in a data structure called page table. In workloads that use hugepages, the lock used to protect some parts of the table has become a lock contention. This release uses finer grained locking for these parts, improving the page table access scalability in threaded hugepage workloads.
  • Squashfs performance improvement – Squashfs, the read-only filesystem used by most live distributions, installers, and some embedded Linux distributions, has got important improvements that dramatically increase performance in workloads with multiple parallel reads. One of them is the direct decompression of data into the Linux page cache, which avoids a copy of the data and eliminates the single lock used to protect the intermediate buffer. The other one is multithreaded decompression.
  • TCP Fast Open enabled by default – TCP Fast Open is an optimization to the process of stablishing a TCP connection that allows the elimination of one round time trip from certain kinds of TCP conversation, which can improve the load speed of web pages. It was added in Linux 3.6, improved in  Linux 3.7, and Linux 3.13 enables TCP Fast Open by default.
  • NFC payments support -  This release implements support for the Secure Element. A netlink API is available to enable, disable and discover NFC attached (embedded or UICC ones) secure elements. With some userspace help, this allows to support NFC payments, used to implement financial transactions. Only the pn544 driver currently supports this API.
  • Support for the High-availability Seamless Redundancy protocol -  High-availability Seamless Redundancy (HSR) is a redundancy protocol for Ethernet. It provides instant failover redundancy for such networks. It requires a special network topology where all nodes are connected in a ring (each node having two physical network interfaces). It is suited for applications that demand high availability and very short reaction time.

Further details on Linux 3.13 are available on Kernelnewbies.org.

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Categories: Linux, Linux 3.0 Tags: Linux, driver, gpu, intel, kernel, nfc, power, squashfs, ssd

$5.40 CHARGER Doctor Makes USB Power Measurements Easy

December 28th, 2013 12 comments

One way to make power measurement for USB powered devices is to make your own USB cable to allow for current measurement via a multimeter, but if you think it’s just too much hassle, I’ve found and purchased a small test device called CHARGER Doctor that shows voltage and current on a 4 digit display, and sells for $5.40 on DealExtreme.

CHARGER_Doctor_USB_Voltage_Current_TesterThe device features a USB female out port, and a USB male input port, that you can place between your USB power adapter, and the cable to your device to alternatively display voltage (4 seconds) and current (9 seconds). It can be used for power consumption measurements, to test if your charger is working normally, or finding out the power adapter that will charge your phone the fastest. It’s said to support measurement between 3.5 to 7V and 0 to 3 A, with an accuracy of +/- 1%.

I’ve shot a very short video showing the CHARGER Doctor attached to my phone charger.

Reviews on DealExtreme are mostly positive saying the device is accurate, however some people said it does not support data, whereas others don’t experience this issue. I’ve connected it between my hub and my camera, and I had no problem browsing the files. However, I would only get proper voltage readings, with current always showing as 0.00A, even when importing videos to my computer. Doing the same test with a USB thumbdrive worked apparently fine showing 5.15V and 0.08 A.

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Categories: Hardware Tags: power, usb

MCU Energy Efficiency Benchmark – Freescale KL02, Microchip PIC24, TI MSP430, and STMicro STM32L

August 16th, 2013 4 comments

Freescale has recently uploaded a video comparison the energy efficiency of several micro-controllers: Freescale Kinetis KL02, Texas Instruments MSP430, STMicro STM32L, and  Microchip PIC24. Since it’s a Freescale video, we already know the winner, but the test they performed it still interesting, and it shows drastic performance differences between architectures.

The used the following exact MCU for testing:

Freescale did not really select tough competition such as NXP LPC800 Cortex M0+, but instead a Cortex M3 MCU, and older 16-bit MCUs. I don’t know if Microchip has a new generation of ultra low power 16-bit MCUs , but Texas Instruments, for example, launched MSP430 Wolverine MCUs at the end of last year. So this comparison may not be very interesting to find out which company has the best MCU in terms of energy efficiency, but as I mentioned above, we’ll see clear differences between architectures, and I find the setup used for testing interesting.

The hardware setup is shown below.

Freescale_STMicro_Microchip_Texas_Instruments_Testbed

We’ve got four board with the MCUs mentioned above, with 4 fully charged capacitors, and a Freescale MCU measuring the voltage in the capacitor.

MCU_Energy_Efficiency_Test_Software_Flow

Each board is loaded with software that follow the flow chart above. Each board runs Coremark, acknowledges it’s done, sleep 5 seconds and repeat. If the voltage in the capacitor is not high enough for the MCU, there won’t be acknowledgment and the test ends. This power consumption “benchmark” measures the energy efficiency under heavy load, and not the standby power that may be the most important part in some applications.

Freescale_Kinetis_Energy_Efficiency_Demo

Then they visualize the real-time capacitor voltage level, CPU power consumption for all platforms. MSP430 is the device that takes the longest time to execute Coremark, and stops after only 2 cycles, because the capacitor can not deliver the minimum voltage required by the chip (2.2V). Microchip PIC24 stops after 12 cycles (1.76V), STM32L after 20 cycles (1.77V), and KL02 continues but we don’t get to see for how long.

You can watch the 5-minutes video to see the complete test.

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LinuxCon North America 2013 Schedule

August 6th, 2013 1 comment

LinuxCon (North America) 2013 will take place on September 16 – 18, 2013 in New Orleans, LA. The event will be co-located with several other conferences: the Linux Plumbers Conference, the Xen Project User Summit, the OpenDaylight Mini-Summit, the Gluster Workshop 2013, the UEFI Plugfest, the Linux Wireless Summit, the Linux Security Summit, and CloudOpen 2013.

LinuxCon consists of 3 days of keynotes, and legal, operations, and developers related sessions as well as tutorials and workshops. There will be around 150 sessions and keynotes during those 3 days. I’ve gone through developer sessions and selected one for each time period.

Linuxcon_2013

Monday, September 16

UEFI has become ubiquitous on the PC client systems and is coming up on servers and ARM-based systems, it is becoming the converged firmware infrastructure. UEFI Secure Boot feature has attracted a lot of attention from the Linux community. Linux distros and Linux Foundation have found solutions.  This presentation provides a review of the motivations behind the creation of the UEFI technology, the history, the current status, and the future. It provides an update on the new significant developments since the publication of UEFI Spec v2.3.1C last June. It also serves as a venue for Q&A with the Linux community.

The LLVM project is an extensive compiler technology suite which is becoming commonplace in many industries. Technology built with LLVM is already shipped in millions of Linux devices as a part of Android/Renderscript. Increasingly it is becoming a big part of the development process for embedded projects, all the way up through to high performance computing clusters. This session will provide an update on the status of the LLVMLinux project; a project which is cooperating with both the Linux kernel and LLVM communities to build the Linux kernel with Clang/LLVM.

Memory compression has long been a topic confined to academic research and development sandboxes. However, with CPU and memory speed improvements outpacing improvements in I/O speed and latency, memory compression is now being deemed a viable way to increase in-memory data density and delaying or avoiding costly I/O.  Zswap, a feature for compressed swap caching, merged into the kernel in v3.11, is a first step toward deploying this functionality in the Linux kernel.

This presentation targets users who own hardware with maxed-out RAM capacities or pay per-GB for RAM usage (IaaS customers) and would like to determine if memory compression can reduce their costs and extend the useful lifetime of their computing assets.

This presentation will cover a brief introduction on how the Bluetooth Low Energy technology works. Then it will present the current status of its support on Linux, presenting the available APIs and how to interact with Bluetooth Smart devices, including the profiles we’re currently working on, and what can be expected to be finished in the near future. There will be also a few demos of Bluetooth Smart devices working with Linux.

With the Linux kernel now supporting NFC, a natural step forward seems to be enabling mobile payments, either cloud or NFC based. To do so we need to give payment applications access to secure elements, via the kernel. At the moment, both the secure element kernel interface and a generic secure element library are missing from any standard Linux distribution, effectively keeping Linux away from the mobile payments market. We will first go through a brief tour of the mobile payments ecosystem and see how it is actually implemented. Then we will describe the proposed kernel APIs for discovering, enabling and talking to secure elements. Finally we will discuss about the possible options for bringing a hardware agnostic secure element library to standard Linux distributions, and how it could be used to implement payment applications on Linux.

Tuesday, September 17

Linaro’s open source automated validation architecture (LAVA) enables developers to test their software on a broad range of hardware platforms. This presentation will describe to developers how they can utilize LAVA to test and validate kernels on real or emulated hardware. This session will showcase a new lightweight interface for testing kernels efficiently, and displaying test results. The goal being that we as developers can leverage automation to ensure that the Linux kernel is well tested and that each iteration becomes more robust than the last

Mobile processors are at the heart of hundreds of devices built on the Linux kernel, but are also being implemented in other Linux-compatible embedded systems. For the Linux community, it’s inevitable that challenges will arise when developing and pinpointing the origin of issues can be a setback. Leon will talk about tools that enable developers to test and refine systems and applications for these powerful mobile processors so the software runs pristinely when launched.

The target audience for this session is software developers, mobile and beyond. Developers can expect to learn how to test and fine tune applications across embedded systems to be not only be functional and problem free, but also visually enticing, battery efficient and packed with cutting-edge features.

With raising popularity of Linux on mobile devices the shortcomings of the default kernel memory management policies become more and more visible. The combination of limited physical memory and lack of swap device brings a challenge in the most efficient use of the available resources. This presentation will give an overview of the current state of improvements (i.e. memory control groups, per-process/group reclaim, memory compression) to the Linux memory management subsystem that together with the cooperating user-space components allow more custom control of the memory available in the system. The usage examples of specific features will be based on Tizen operating system.

This talk is intented mainly at kernel and distribution developers wishing to improve Linux memory management but it may be interesting to whoever would like to know more about the topic.

The Tux3 filesystem project began in 2008 and has now reached a point where it is beginning to show favorable benchmark results compared to other Linux filesystems. Tux3 breaks new ground in Linux filesystem technology with its strong consistency semantics, novel high performance atomic commit and asynchronous frontend/backend design that maps well to the new generation of multi-core CPUs. Tux3 is expected to reach a mergable state in the next few months. Much work remains to be done, including incorporating versioning and replication support, improved filesystem checking and repair facilities, enterprise features such as quotas and end to end checksumming, and availability features such as online checking and repair. In this talk, Daniel Phillips, designer of Tux3, will discuss current implementation status, present benchmark results and lay out plans for kernel merge and beyond.

Software Freedom Conservancy announced last year a renewed effort for cross-project collaborative GPL compliance efforts, including copyright holders from BusyBox, Linux, and Samba. Conservancy uses an internal system of communication and collaboration to take input from stakeholders to discuss and engage in compliance activity to ensure compliance with the GPL throughout the technology industry and particularly in the embedded device market.  Compliance with the GPL is the responsibility of copyright holders of the software, and Conservancy helps those copyright holders pursue the work, so those developers can focus on coding. In this talk, the Executive Director of Conservancy will discuss how Conservancy handles compliance matters, what matters it focuses on, and how the copyright holders that work with Conservancy engage in a collaborative effort to ensure compliance with the GPL.

Wednesday, September 18

The Linux Kernel is currently supported on over 30+ different hardware architectures. This is a huge benefit for Linux adoption on a wide range of deployments. However, the ability to build and test Linux kernels on all possible supported architectures requires having access to such test systems for each of these architectures which is not easy by any means. Therefore, the ability to cross-compile non-native architectures on an architecture that is widely supported such as the x86_64 helps address the building kernels part of the problem.

This talk will present the details of where to find cross-compilers packages for architectures, how to install them, and how to automate compile on each of these architectures on an x86 system. This talk will be of great benefit to any software developer trying to build and test Linux kernel on non-native hardware architecture.

As ARM and ARM64 move out of gadgets and into more PC like hardware, there has been an increasing demand for the same tools to manage these devices as already exists in x86 world. Linaro has been working on UEFI and ACPI on arm/arm64 hardware and this talk is a summary of the current status of the work and the direction that will be taken in the future. We will show the areas of change to the ARM platform boot sequence, change to the ACPI core code, and change to drivers to support ACPI.

The Linux kernel contains multiple energy-saving features. Some of them act on the system as a whole while the others are concerned with individual processors or I/O devices. The majority of them have been developed in isolation and they work reasonably well individually, but that is often insufficient to address problems related to the progressing integration of hardware and growing user expectations. For this reason, it will be necessary to make them work more closely together and he’s going to talk about that in his presentation.  Rafael will describe the current status of the kernel’s energy-saving features, the most important problems they are facing and some possible ways to address those problems

This session is a BoF session organized by LTSI (Long Term Support Initiative) to discuss testing for Linux kernel. Testing is very important when delivering software, validating changes, shipping products and so on but actually each individual is doing its own testing and that are not shared with others. This BoF would like to discuss how to share testing, what is the common testing portion and so on.

Those are just a few choices, and you can check the full schedule to find out which sessions suit you best.

You can register to LinuxCon 2013 and CloudOpen 2013 online for the following fees:

  • US$475 through May 3rd (Early Bird)
  • US$575 May 4th through July 31st (Standard)
  • US$675 thereafter (Late)
  • Student Registration – $150

Fees are up between 11% to 50% compared to last year. Who said there’s no inflation?

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