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Linux 4.14 Release – Main Changes, ARM & MIPS Architecture

November 13th, 2017 7 comments

Linus Torvalds has announced the release of Linux 4.14:

No surprises this week, although it is probably worth pointing out how the 0day robot has been getting even better (it was very useful before, but Fengguang has been working on making it even better, and reporting the problems it has found).

Sure, some of the new reports turned out to be just 0day doing things that just don’t work (ie KASAN with old gcc versions, but also doing things like loading old ISA drivers in situations that just don’t make sense – remember when you couldn’t even ask if the hardware existed or not, and just had to know), but even then it’s been all good.

The appended shortlog is obviously only for the (small) haul since rc8, and it really is tiny. Not very many commits, and they are small. The biggest thing that stands out in the diffstat is the “leaking_addresses” perl script, which is actually under active development, but I put the first version in for 4.14 just so that people could see that initial state and start looking at the end result and perhaps ask themselves “should my code make these kernel addresses visible to user space”.

The actual changes will hopefully start percolating into 4.15, with one notable likely early change (which has been discussed extensively on the list) being to just hash any “%p” addresses by default. We used to have strict modes that just zeroed the address out, but that was actually counter-productive, in that often people use the address as a “kernel object identity” for debugging (or for cross-correlation -think network sockets), and so just clearing the pointer value makes those kinds of uses pointless. But using a secure hash allows for those kinds of identity uses, while not actually leaking the address itself.

(Other situations where the actual address is relevant then need other approaches – we’ll be restricting /proc/kallsyms only to entities that actually need them etc etc).

Anyway, apart from that one script, the rest of it really is one-liners or “few-liners”.

The most noticeable last-minute change is probably that we had to revert the code that showed a good MHz value in /proc/cpuinfo even for the modern “CPU picks frequency dynamically” case. It worked fine, but it was much too expensive on machines with tens or hundreds of CPU cores. There’s a cunning plan, but it didn’t make 4.14, so we’ll get it working and then back-port.

Anything else is pretty esoteric, you can just read the changelog..

And with this, the merge window for 4.15 is obviously open. As mentioned in the late rc announcements, the extra week for rc8 means that now Thanksgiving week ends up happening during the second half of the merge window, and I’ll be off on a family vacation.

We’ll see how that goes.

I might decide that I’ll extend the merge window if I feel that I can’t be responsive enough.

Or maybe you guys won’t even notice, because I _will_ have my laptop and Internet access.

Or maybe I will just decide that 4.14 was a painful release, and any late stragglers for 4.15 are not worth _another_ painful release, and I’ll just say “tough luck, you were late to the merge window, and I felt more like being out in the sun than taking your second-week pull request”.

Because it really would be lovely to have a smaller and calmer release for 4.15.

Anyway, go out and test the new 4.14 release, that is slated to be the next LTS kernel – and start sending me pull request for the 4.15 merge window.

Linux 4.13 brought us new features such as support for non-blocking buffered I/O operations at the block level, AppArmor security module’s “domain labeling” code, kernel-based TLS implementation for better performance, and CIFS/SAMBA default change to v3.0 for better security, among many other changes.

Some newsworthy changes in Linux 4.14 include:

  • Bigger memory limits – x86-64 used to be limited by 4-level paging to 256 TiB of virtual address space and 64 TiB of physical address space. Some vendors already reached the limit with servers equipped with 64 TiB of memory, so support for 5-level paging has been introduced, increasing the limits to 128 PiB of virtual address space and 4 PiB of physical address space.
  • Added AMD Secure Memory Encryption – Secure Memory Encryption can be used to protect the contents of DRAM from physical attacks on the system. Read LWN article or AMD whitepaper for details.
  • Better kernel traces with the ORC unwinder – An “unwinder” is what prints the list of functions (aka. stack trace, callgraph, call stack…) that have been executed before reaching a determinate point of the code. The new unwinder is called ORC (Oops Rewind Capability), works more reliably than the current unwinder, and does not require adding code anywhere, hence having not effect on text size or runtime performance
  • Compression in Btrfs and Squashfszstd compresses at speeds close to lz4 at compression ratio comparable to lzma. Support for zstd compression had been added to both Btrfs and Squash. See benchmarks in commit messages for Btrsfs and Squashfs.
  • Zero-copy from user memory to sockets – The MSG_ZEROCOPY socket flag enables zero copy mechanism to common socket send calls. It is generally only effective at writes over around 10 KB. Checkout the documentation for more details.

Linux 4.14 will be a long term support kernel with 6-years of support, so it will be found in devices for the years to come. [Update: While Linux 4.4 will be supported for 6 years until February 2022, the plan is to support Linux 4.14 until January 2020, right from the horse’s mouth]

The ARM architecture has gone through many changes as per usual. Here’s a non-exhaustive list of changes:

  • Allwinner:
    • Allwinner A10s – HDMI DDC I2C Adapter,HDMI CEC support
    • Allwinner A10/A20 – CCU Clock-ng support
    • Allwinner A64 – SRAM controller driver
    • Allwinner A83T –  SD/MMC support, AXP813 PMIC,USB support
    • Allwinner H3 – I2S support
    • Allwinner R40 –  CCU sunxi-ng style clock driver support,pinctrl support
  • Rockchip
    • Clock driver – Fixes for RK3128, added RK3126 support within RK3128 driver
    • Pinctrl – Rockchip RK3128 subdriver
    • Power domains for Rockchip RK3366
    • New power key driver for Rockchip RK805 PMIC
    • PCI driver – Added Rockchip per-lane PHY support for better power management
    • SPI driver – Explicit support for Rockchip RV1108
    • DRM driver – Added dw_hdmi support for RK3399
    • Added ROCK64 board, RK3399 Sapphire module on Excavator carrier-board, and Theobroma Systems RK3399-Q7 SoM
    • Device tree changes:
      • pinctrl typos
      • keep-power-in-suspend in non-sdio nodes
      • removal of the deprecated num-slots property from dwmmc nodes.
      • RK3328 – support for spdif, io-domains and usb (including enablement of usb on the evaluation board)
      • RK3368 – support for spdif.
      • RK3399 – pcie changes, support for the mali gpu, a new power-domain, sdmmc support on the firefly board and dynamic-power-coefficients.
      • Removal of the deprectated num-slots property from all Rockchip dw-mmc nodes
      • RV1108 – support for sd-cards on the evaluation board
      • RK3288 – EVB gains support saradc and the adc-key, mali gpu enabled in some boards (fennec, evb, tinker).
      • RK3228/RK3229 – Support for efuse, sdmmc, sdio, io-domans and spdif; separate rk3229.dtsi;  The evaluation board also gets regulators, io-domains, emmc, tsadc keys
  • Amlogic
    • Clock driver – Added gxbb CEC32 and sd_emmc clocks, meson8b reset controller
    • SoC info driver – “Amlogic SoCs have a SoC information register for SoC type, package type and revision information. This patchs adds support for this register decoding and exposing with the SoC bus infrastructure”
    • Added Amlogic Meson AO CEC Controller driver
    • Device tree changes:
      • Updates for new MMC driver features/fixes, support for high-speed modes
      • Clock updates
      • Add GPIO line names to a few boards
      • Update clock controler for use as reset controller
  • Samsung
    • Clock driver – suspend fix for Samsung Exynos SoCs where we need to keep clks on across suspend
    • Samsung Exynos5420/5422/5800 audio fixes
    • S3C24xx platform – Cleanup from non-existent CONFIG entries, fix unmet NET dependency when H1940 bluetooth chip is selected
    • Pinctrl driver – Fix NULL pointer dereference on S3C24XX, fix invalid register offset used for external interrupts on Exynos5433, consolidate between drivers and bindings the defines for pin mux functions, minor code improvements
    • Samsung DTS ARM64 changes
      • Remove deprecated and unneeded properties from Exynos boards.
      • Implement proper (working) support for USB On-The-Go on Exynos5433 TM2/TM2E boards.
    • Samsung defconfig changes
      • Enable some drivers useful on our boards (communication: Bluetooth, WiFi, NFC, USB; codepages and crypto algorithms).
      • Enable debugging and lock testing options.
  • Qualcomm
    • IPQ8074 – Added SoC & HK01 board support, PCI driver
    • APQ8016 – Force USB host mode; jack detection support in ASoC
    • MSM8916 – Updated coresight nodes, added GPU, IOMMU, Venus video codec, and CEC clock nodes
    • MSM8996 – Add  support for USB, PCIE phy, RPM/GLink, and modem SMP2P; SMMU clks
    • Pinctrl driver – Qualcomm APQ8064 can handle general purpose clock muxing
    • NAND driver – Various fixes
    • Qualcomm GLINK SMEM driver – Fix memory leak, and unlock  on error
    • V4l – Update the Qualcomm Camera Subsystem driver document with a media controller pipeline graph diagram, VFE scale and crop modules support, and PIX interface and format conversion support.
    • Added DB820c PM8994 regulator node
    • Add PMI8994 gpios
    • Device tree changes:
      • Fixup XO, timer nodes, and pinctrl on IPQ4019
      • Add IPQ4019 RNG and wifi blocks
      • Update MSM8974 coresight node
      • Add IPQ8074 bindings
  • Mediatek
    • Pinctrl driver – Mediatek MT7623 PCIe mux data fixed up.
    • PCI Driver – Added MediaTek MT2712 and MT7622 support
    • Thermal driver – Added Mediatek thermal driver for mt2712
    • Added support for MediaTek MT2712 SoC and avaluation board
    • New board – Mediatek mt7623-based Banana Pi R2
  • Other new ARM hardware platforms and SoCs:
    • Broadcom – Stingray communication processor, Raspberry Pi Zero W
    • Marvell – ARMADA 8080 SoC
    • Microchip/Atmel – SAMA5D28 SoM1 EK
    • NXP – Toradex Apalis module + Apalis and Ixora carrier boards, Engicam GEAM6UL Starter Kit, Beckhoff CX9020 Embedded PC (i.MX53)
    • Renesas – R-Car D3 board (R8A77995)
    • Storlink/Cortina –
    • Texas Instruments – TI DT76x, TI AM335x Moxa UC-8100-ME-T open platform, TI AM57xx Beaglebone X15 Rev C
    • Uniphier – PXs3 STB SoC and development board
    • ZTE – ZX296718 PCBOX Board

MIPS had a huge changelog this time, summarized below:

  • CM – Rename mips_cm_base to mips_gcr_base; Specify register size when generating accessors; Use BIT/GENMASK for register fields, order & drop shifts; Add cluster & block args to mips_cm_lock_other()
  • CPC – Use common CPS accessor generation macros; Use BIT/GENMASK for register fields, order & drop shifts; Introduce register modify (set/clear/change) ; Use change_*, set_* & clear_* where appropriate, etc…
  • CPS – Read GIC_VL_IDENT directly, not via irqchip driver
  • DMA – Consolidate coherent and non-coherent dma_alloc code, Don’t use dma_cache_sync to implement fd_cacheflush
  • FPU emulation / FP assist code – Corner cases fixes such as NaN propagation and other special input values; Zero bits 32-63 of the result for a CLASS.D instruction; enhanced statics via debugfs; do not use bools for arithmetic. GCC 7.1 moans about this; correct user fault_addr type
  • Generic MIPS
    • Enhancement of stack backtraces
    • Cleanup from non-existing options
    • Handle non word sized instructions when examining frame
    • Fix detection and decoding of ADDIUSP instruction
    • Fix decoding of SWSP16 instruction
    • Refactor handling of stack pointer in get_frame_info
    • Remove unreachable code from force_fcr31_sig()
    • Many more fixes and cleanups
  • GIC – Introduce asm/mips-gic.h with accessor functions; Use new GIC accessor functions in mips-gic-timer; Remove counter access functions from irq-mips-gic.c; Remove gic_read_local_vp_id() from irq-mips-gic.c, etc…
  • microMIPS – Fix microMIPS stack unwinding on big endian systems
  • MIPS-GIC – SYNC after enabling GIC region
  • NUMA – Remove the unused parent_node() macro
  • R6 – Constify r2_decoder_tables; add accessor & bit definitions for GlobalNumber
  • SMP – Constify smp ops, allow boot_secondary SMP op to return errors
  • VDSO – Drop gic_get_usm_range() usage, avoid use of linux/irqchip/mips-gic.h
  • Platform changes
    • Alchemy – Add devboard machine type to cpuinfo, update cpu feature overrides,threaded carddetect irqs for devboards
    • AR7 – allow NULL clock for clk_get_rate
    • BCM63xx – Fix ENETDMA_6345_MAXBURST_REG offset, allow NULL clock for clk_get_rate
    • CI20 – Enable GPIO and RTC drivers in defconfig; add ethernet and fixed-regulator nodes to DTS
    • Generic platform
      • Move Boston and NI 169445 FIT image source to their own files
      • Include asm/bootinfo.h for plat_fdt_relocated()
      • Include asm/time.h for get_c0_*_int()
      • Include asm/bootinfo.h for plat_fdt_relocated()
      • Include asm/time.h for get_c0_*_int()
      • Allow filtering enabled boards by requirements
      • Don’t explicitly disable CONFIG_USB_SUPPORT
      • Bump default NR_CPUS to 16
    • JZ4700 – Probe the jz4740-rtc driver from devicetree
    • Lantiq – Drop check of boot select from the spi-falcon and lantiq-flash MTD drivers, access boot cause register in the watchdog driver through regmap, add device tree binding documentation for the watchdog driver, add docs for the RCU DT bindings, etc…
    • Loongson 2F – Allow NULL clock for clk_get_rate
    • Malta – Use new GIC accessor functions
    • NI 169445 – Add support for NI 169445 board; only include in 32r2el kernels
    • Octeon – Add support for watchdog of 78XX SOCs, add support for watchdog of CN68XX SOCs, expose support for mips32r1, mips32r2 and mips64r1, enable more drivers in config file, etc…
    • Omega2+ – New board, add support and defconfig
    • Pistachio – Enable Root FS on NFS in defconfig
    • Mediatek/Ralink – Add Mediatek MT7628A SoC, allow NULL clock for clk_get_rate, explicitly request exclusive reset control in the pci-mt7620 PCI driver.
    • SEAD3 – Only include in 32 bit kernels by default
    • VoCore board – Add VoCore as a vendor t0 dt-bindings, add defconfig file

For the complete details, you could check out the full Linux 4.14 changelog – with comments only – generated using git log v4.13..v4.14 --stat, or – kinder to your eyes – read kernelnewsbies’s Linux 4.14 changelog.

RetrOrangePi 4.0 Released

November 6th, 2017 9 comments

RetrOrangePi is a retro gaming & media center firmware based on Armbian Debian image and working on Allwinner H3/H2+ based Orange Pi boards, Banana Pi M2+, and NanoPi M1, as well as Beelink X2 TV Box.

Right at the end of last year, I reviewed RetrOrangePi 3.0 on Orange Pi One board to which I connected Mars G01 gamepad, and I could play some games like Wolfenstein 3D and Quake, and watch videos on OpenELEC/Kodi 16. The firmware also comes with various emulators, but you’d have to load the ROMs yourself due to intellectual property / license issues. The developers have now released RetrOrangePi 4.0.

RetrOrangePi 4.0 changelog:

  • Latest Armbian v5.32 (Debian Jessie kernel 3.4.113)
  • RetroPie-Setup v4.3.3 (unofficial fork, upgradeable)
  • New RetrOrangePi repository for easy updates and fixes
  • EmulationStation v2.6.5 with video and game collection support, Desktop/OpenELEC shorcuts from main menu
  • New ROPi “Attract-Mode”-like theme (based on Cosmos theme)
  • Retroarch 1.6.7 – Retroachievements tested
  • Kodi Krypton 17.4 (hardware acceleration provided by MPV + VDPAU): IPTVsimple included, quit button fixed
  • OpenELEC (Kodi Jarvis 16.1) with CEC support by Jernej Skrabec (optional installation)
  • Slim and Full versions for all compatible boards
  • All Libretro cores updated
  • All RetroPie themes available for installation
  • Experimental new libretro cores: DOSBox, MAME2014, VICE, X68000, Amiga PUAE
  • PPSSPP latest v1.42
  • Mupen64Plus standalone emulator (with hires textures support)
  • AdvanceMAME 3.5
  • AdvanceMENU frontend integrated
  • AdvanceMESS (support for ancient platforms, tested OK: Bally Astrocade, BBC Micro, Channel F, Colecovision etc.
  • New Quake 2 port (Yamagi Quake)
  • New Streets of Rage Remake port (needs BennuGD engine downloaded to home folder)
  • Improved Amiga emulation – fullscreen UAE4ARM with JIT support, optional WHDLoad
  • Hatari 2.0 (SDL2) – atariST emulator
  • Vice 3.1 (SDL2) – Commodore emulator
  • Boot selection – from Desktop (EmulationStation, Kodi, AdvanceMENU, RetroArch, Desktop)
  • Onscreen keyboard (Florence)
  • Overscan fix in AV outputs (Allwinner_TVOUT_manipulator)
  • New Desktop wallpaper, wifi config, ES, Kodi, Donate and Support icons
  • Customized Retroarch configuration (optimal settings, appearance tweaks, original aspect ratio)
  • New HDMI/Analog AV configuration tool (thanks Jose Rios) + our overscan fix
  • New exclusive ROPi Radio beta version
  • Scraper by Sselph update
  • Universal XML Scraper integration and tutorials
  • Binary cores updates
  • GPIO driver can be installed from driver section.
  • RetroPie services tested: USBROMSERVICE – create a retropie-mount folder in your FAT32 flash drive, Virtual gamepad
  • Custom ES splashscreen by Francois Lebel @MagicFranky – the number 4 was on us :p (great skills!)
  • Custom MOTD with ROPi invader + Armbian info
  • Improved filesystem support: FAT32 automount, ExFAT support

The full images are not yet available, but if you are an existing users with ROPi 3.0.1 instead, you can upgrade to version 4.0 by running ropi4.sh script in your board/device as pi user:

The images for new users will be coming later once one of the developers involved get more free time. In the meantime, you’d have to download & install RetroOrange Pi 3.0.1, and run the script to upgrade to 4.0.

You’ll find more details about the release in the forums, where you can also ask for support questions. The source code can be found on github.

$15 Banana Pi M2 Zero Board is a Raspberry Pi Zero W Clone with a Quad Core Processor

October 30th, 2017 29 comments

Many development boards have followed Raspberry Pi 2/3 form factor in recent years, including Hardkernel ODROID-C2 and Pine64 ROCK64, but so far I had not seen any boards leveraging Raspberry Pi Zero (W) form factor.

SinoVoIP will change that, as they’ve just launched Banana Pi M2 Zero (aka BPI-Zero) board powered by Allwinner H2+ quad core processor, leveraging Raspberry Pi Zero W form factor, and now selling on Aliexpress for $15 plus shipping.

Banana Pi M2 Zero specifications:

  • SoC – Allwinner H2+ quad core Cortex A7 processor @ up to 1 GHz with Mali 400MP2
  • System Memory – 512 MB DDR3
  • Storage – micro SD card slot up to 64GB
  • Video/Audio Output – mini HDMI
  • Connectivity – 802.11 b/g/n WiFi and Bluetooth LE (AP6212 module with options for AP6181, AP6335)
  • Camera – 1x MIPI CSI connector supporting 8-bit YUV422 CMOS sensor, CCIR656 protocol for NTSC and PAL, 5MP camera, 1080p video @30Hz
  • USB – 1x micro USB OTG, 1x micro USB port for power only
  • Expansion – 40-pin mostly compatible Raspberry Pi header with
  • Misc – Reset and power buttons; power and status LEDs, 3-pin UART header
  • Power Supply – 5V/2A via micro USB port
  • Dimensions – 60 x 30 mm (Mistake? RPi Zero W is 65 x 30 mm)
  • Weight – 35 grams

The board is said to support Android, Ubuntu, Debian and “Raspberry Pi” images. The latter obviously means Raspbian with Allwinner H2+ Linux kernel and  U-boot, not the actual Raspbian for Raspberry Pi images. But currently, only Ubuntu 16.04 Mate image with Linux 3.4.113 appears to be available for download, and documentation is not ready yet. You might consider trying Armbian image for Orange Pi Zero, or even Ubuntu 16.04.2 image for NanoPi Duo. Both images might need some tweaking with device tree file, and the WiFi module.

A few more details may be available on the product page. Shipping on Aliexpress varies a lot depending on destination, with reasonable $4-$7 fee to the US and Germany, but I’ve seen between $15 and $30 to other countries.

Banana Pi M2 Magic Board Now Sold with Allwinner A33 Processor for $23

October 20th, 2017 14 comments

Banana Pi M2 Magic development board was first unveiled in February of this year with an Allwinner R16 SoC, 512 MB RAM, and 8GB eMMC flash, and its main selling points were support for MIPI DSI LCD displays, CSI cameras, and 3.7V LiPo batteries. AFAIK SinoVoIP never sold that version of the board, at least on Aliexpress.

Possibly due to the intricacies of Allwinner business units, the company has now officially launched Banana Pi M2 Magic (aka BPI M2M), but replaced Allwinner R16 by the similar Allwinner A33 processor, and removed the 8GB eMMC flash to bring the price down to $23 plus shipping. The “old” Allwinner R16 based Banana Pi M2 Magic board will apparently be sold as M2 Magic Plus soon.

Banana Pi BPI-M2 Magic (A33) specifications:

  • SoC – Allwinner A33 quad core ARM Cortex-A7 processor with ARM Mali 400 MP2 GPU
  • System Memory – 512MB DDR3
  • Storage – micro SD slot
  • Display Interface – 4-lane MIPI DSI connector
  • Camera Interface – CSI connector supporting up to 5MP sensor, 1080p30 H.265 video capture (OV5640 module)
  • Video Decoder – Multi-format FHD video decoding, including Mpeg1/2, Mpeg4, H.263, H.264, etc H.264 high profile [email protected]
  • Audio – On-board microphone
  • Connectivity – Wifi 802.11 b/g/n, Bluetooth 4.0 LE (AP6212) with u.FL antenna connector
  • USB – 1x USB 2.0 host, 1x micro USB 2.0 OTG port
  • Expansion – 40-pin header with GPIOs, UART, I2C, SPI, PWM…
  • Misc – Reset & power buttons, LEDs,
  • Power Supply
    • 5V/2A via DC power barrel
    • 3.7V Lithium battery support via 6-pin header
    • AXP223 PMIC
  • Dimensions – 51 x 51 mm
  • Weight – 40 grams

The Wiki indicates the board support Android and Linux, and provides some further information about the interface. Bear in mind SinoVoIP is often not quite fully correct, so make sure to double check if one of the feature is important to you.

[Update: October 30, 2017. M2 Magic with 8GB flash, Allwinner R16 sold for $28 + shipping]

Industrial Shields Industrial Panel PCs are Based on Raspberry Pi, Banana Pi, or HummingBoard

October 10th, 2017 4 comments

Boot&Work Corp., S.L. is a company based in Catalonia that sells industrial automation electronic devices under “Industrial Shields” brand. What makes their product noticeable is that they all appear to be based on maker boards such as Arduino or Raspberry Pi.

The company offers various Arduino based PLC modules with or without Ethernet that can be controlled with 10.1″ industrial grade panel PCs based on ARM Linux development boards.

Click to Enlarge

Currently three sub-families are available:

  • HummTOUCH powered by Solidrun HummingBoard-i2 NXP i.MX 6Dual Lite board
  • BANANATOUCH with either Banana Pi M64 (Allwinner A64 quad core Cortex A53) or Banana Pi M3 (Allwinner A83T octa core Cortex A7)
  • TOUCHBERRY with Raspberry Pi model B or Raspberry Pi 3 model B

Beside the different processors, the 10.1″ Panel PCs share some of the same specifications:

Industrial Shields Arduino PLC – Click to Enlarge

  • Display – 10.1″ resistive multitouch LVDS, 315 nits, 170° viewing angle, 1280×720 resolution
  • Video Input – MIPI CSI connector (HummTouch only)
  • System Memory – 512MB to
    • HummTOUCH – 1 GB RAM
    • BANANATOUCH – 2GB RAM
    • BERRYTOUCH – 512MB RAM or 1GB LPDDR2
  • Storage
    • All – micro SD slot
    • BANANATOUCH – 8GB eMMC flash (16, 32, 64 GB optional)
  • Connectivity
    • Fast or Gigabit Ethernet depending on model
    • BANANATOUCH and BERRYTOUCH 3 – 802.11 b/g/n WiFi, Bluetooth 4.0
  • USB – 2x to 3x USB ports
  • I/O Expansion – 8x GPIO, SPI, I2C, UART
  • Power Supply – 12V DC; supports 7 – 18V DC input up to 1.5A
  • Dimensions – 325.5 x 195.6 x 95 mm
  • Compliance – CE

The user manual lists further details about environmental conditions, for example for HummTOUCH models:

  • Temperature Range – Operating: 0 to 45°C; storage: -20 to 60 C
  • Humidity – 10% to 90% (no condensation)
  • Ambient Environment – With no corrosive gas
  • Shock resistance – 80m/s2 in the X, Y and Z direction 2 times each.

There’s no information about Ingress Protection (IP) ratings, so it’s safe to assume those have not been tested for dust- and waterproofness.

Back of BANANATOUCH M3 Panel PC

The company also have smaller 3.5″ and 3.7″ model based on Raspberry Pi 3 board only. HummTOUCH models are available with either Linux or Android, BANANATOUCH and BERRYTOUCH models are only sold with Linux (Raspbian),  but Ubuntu, Android and Windows 10 IoT are options if they are supported by the respective board.

The 10.1″ panel PCs are sold for 375 to 460 Euros, and the Arduino based PLCs start at 135 Euros. Documentation and purchase links can all be found on Industrial Shields website.

Linux 4.13 Release – Main Changes, ARM & MIPS Architectures

September 4th, 2017 6 comments

Linus Torvalds has just announced the release of Linux 4.13 and a kidney stone…:

So last week was actually somewhat eventful, but not enough to push me to delay 4.13.

Most of the changes since rc7 are actually networking fixes, the bulk of them to various drivers. With apologies to the authors of said patches, they don’t look all that interesting (which is definitely exactly what you want just before a release). Details in the appended shortlog.

Note that the shortlog below is obviously only since rc7 – the _full_4.13 log is much too big to post and nobody sane would read it. So if you’re interested in all the rest of it, get the git tree and limit the logs to the files you are interested in if you crave details.

No, the excitement was largely in the mmu notification layer, where we had a fairly last-minute regression and some discussion about the problem. Lots of kudos to Jérôme Glisse for jumping on it, and implementing the fix.

What’s nice to see is that the regression pointed out a nasty and not very well documented (or thought out) part of the mmu notifiers, and the fix not only fixed the problem, but did so by cleaning up and documenting what the right behavior should be, and furthermore did so by getting rid of the problematic notifier and actually removing almost two hundred lines in the process.

I love seeing those kinds of fixes. Better, smaller, code.

The other excitement this week was purely personal, consisting of seven hours of pure agony due to a kidney stone. I’m all good, but it sure _felt_ a lot longer than seven hours, and I don’t even want to imagine what it is for people that have had the experience drag out for longer. Ugh.

Anyway, on to actual 4.13 issues.

While we’ve had lots of changes all over (4.13 was not particularly big, but even a “solidly average” release is not exactly small), one very _small_ change merits some extra attention, because it’s one of those very rare changes where we change behavior due to security issues, and where people may need to be aware of that behavior change when upgrading.

This time it’s not really a kernel security issue, but a generic protocol security issue.

The change in question is simply changing the default cifs behavior: instead of defaulting to SMB 1.0 (which you really should not use: just google for “stop using SMB1” or similar), the default cifs mount now defaults to a rather more modern SMB 3.0.

Now, because you shouldn’t have been using SMB1 anyway, this shouldn’t affect anybody. But guess what? It almost certainly does affect some people, because they blithely continued using SMB1 without really thinking about it.

And you certainly _can_ continue to use SMB1, but due to the default change, now you need to be *aware* of it. You may need to add an explicit “vers=1.0” to your mount options in /etc/fstab or similar if you *really* want SMB1.

But if the new default of 3.0 doesn’t work (because you still use a pterodactyl as a windshield wiper), before you go all the way back to the bad old days and use that “vers=1.0”, you might want to try “vers=2.1”. Because let’s face it, SMB1 is just bad, bad, bad.

Anyway, most people won’t notice at all. And the ones that do notice can check their current situation (just look at the output of “mount” and see if you have any cifs things there), and you really should update from the default even if you are *not* upgrading kernels.

Ok, enough about that. It was literally a two-liner change top defaults – out of the million or so lines of the full 4.13 patch changing real code.

Go get the new kernel,

Linus

Two months ago, Linux 4.12 was released with initial support for AMD Radeon RX Vega GPU, BFQ (Budget Fair Queuing) and Kyber block I/O schedulers, AnalyzeBoot tool for the kernel, “hybrid consistency model” implementation for live kernel patching, but disabled the Open Sound System, and removed AVR32 support, among many other changes.

Some interesting changes in Linux 4.13 – mostly based on LWN 4.13 Merge Window part 1 & part 2 – include:

  • Support for non-blocking buffered I/O operations added at the block level, which should also improve asynchronous I/O support when used with buffered I/O.
  • AppArmor security module’s “domain labeling” code has been merged into the mainline. It was maintained by Ubuntu out of tree previously.
  • Kernel-based TLS implementation that should deliver better performance for HTTPS, and other protocol relying on TLS.
  • CIFS/SAMBA now defaults to v3.0 instead of v1.0 due to security issues
  • File System Changes – EXT-4: support for to ~2 billion files per directory with largedir option, extended attributes up to 64KB, new deduplication feature; f2fs: supports disk quotas; overlayfs union: new “index directory” feature that makes copy-up operations work without breaking hard links.

Changes specific to ARM include:

  • Rockchip:
    • Added support for RV1108 SoC for camera applications
    • Rockchip IOMMU driver is now available on ARM64
    • PCIe – configure Rockchip MPS and reorganize + use normal register bank
    • Clock driver for Rockchip RK3128 SoC
    • Rockchip pinctrl driver now supports iomux-route switching for RK3228, RK3328 and RK3399
    • Sound driver – Support for Rockchip PDM controllers
    • Device tree
      • Added RK3399-Firefly SBC
      • Added ARM Mali GPU
      • Added cru
      • Added sdmmc, sdio, emmc nodes for Rockchip RK3328
  • Amlogic
    • Updated CEC EE clock support
    • Enabled clock controller for 32-bit Meson8
    • Device tree changes
      • Meson UARTs
      • new SPI controller driver
      • HDMI & CVBS for multiple boards
      • new pinctrl pins for SPI, HDMI CEC, PWM
      • Ethernet Link and Activity LEDs pin nodes
      • SAR ADC support for Meson8 & Meson8b
    • Defconfig changes – Meson SPICC enabled as module; IR core, decoders and Meson IR device enabled;
    • New boards & devices: NanoPi K2, Libre Computer SBC, R-Box Pro
  • Samsung
    • Clock driver updated for Samsung Exynos 5420 audio clocks, and converted code to clk_hw registration APIs
    • Pinctrl drivers split per ARMv7 and ARMv8 since there’s no need to compile everything on each of them
    • ARM DT updates:
      • Add HDMI CEC to Exynos5 SoCs + needed property for CEC on Odroid U3
      • Fix reset GPIO polarity on Rinato
      • Minor cleanups and readability improvements.
    • ARM64 DT updates:
      • Remove unneeded TE interrupt gpio property
    • Defconfig changes – Some cleanups, enabled Exynos PRNG along with user-space crypto API.
  • Qualcomm
    • Clock & pinctrl drivers for Qualcomm IPQ8074
    • Add debug UART addresses for IPQ4019
    • Improve QCOM SMSM error handling
    • Defconfig
      • Enable HWSPINLOCK & RPMSG_QCOM_SMD to get some Qualcomm boards to work out of the box/again
      • Enable IPQ4019 clock and pinctrl
    • Mailbox – New controller driver for Qualcomm’s APCS IPC
    • RPMsg – Qualcomm GLINK protocol driver and DeviceTree-based modalias support, as well as a number of smaller fixes
    • Qualcomm Device Tree Changes
      • Fix IPQ4019 i2c0 node
      •  Add GSBI7 on IPQ8064
      • Add misc APQ8060 devices
      • Fixup USB related devices on APQ8064 and MSM8974
    • Qualcomm ARM64 Updates for v4.12
      • Fix APQ8016 SBC WLAN LED
      • Add MSM8996 CPU node
      • Add MSM8992 SMEM and fixed regulator
      • Fixup MSM8916 USB support
  • Mediatek
    • CPU clks for Mediatek MT8173/MT2701/MT7623 SoCs
    • Pinctrl – Serious code size cut for MT7623
    • Mediatek “scpsys” system controller support for MT6797
    • Device tree
      • Added support for MT6797 (Helio X20) mobile SoC and evaluation board
      • Extended MT7623 support significantly
      • Added MT2701 i2c device & JPEG decoder nodes
  • Other new ARM hardware platforms and SoCs:
    • STM32 – stm32h743-disco, stm32f746-disco, and stm32f769-disco boards; Drivers for digital audio interfaces, S/PDIF receiver, digital camera interfaces, HDMI CEC, watchdog timer
    • NXP – Gateworks Ventana GW5600 SBC;  Technexion Pico i.MX7D board; i.MX5/6 image processing units & camera sensor interfaces
    • Realtek – Initial support for Realtek RTD1295 SoC and Zidoo X9S set-top-box
    • Actions Semi – Initial support for Actions Semi S900 / S500, and corresponding LeMaker Guitar & Bubblegum-96 SBCs
    • Renesas – Salvator-XS and H3ULCB automotive development systems; GR-Peach board, iWave G20D-Q7 System-on-Module plus
    • Socionext- Support for Uniphier board support for LD11-global and LD20-global
    • Broadcom – Stingray communication processor and two reference boards;
    • Marvell – Linksys WRT3200ACM router
    • Texas Instruments – BeagleBone Blue
    • Microchip / Atmel – MMU-less ARM Cortex-M7 SoCs (SAME70/V71/S70/V70)

Some of the changes specific to MIPS include:

  • Boston platform support – Document DT bindings; Add CLK driver for board clocks
  • CM – Avoid per-core locking with CM3 & higher; WARN on attempt to lock invalid VP, not BUG
  • CPS – Select CONFIG_SYS_SUPPORTS_SCHED_SMT for MIPSr6; Prevent multi-core with dcache aliasing; Handle cores not powering down more gracefully; Handle spurious VP starts more gracefully
  • DSP – Add lwx & lhx missaligned access support
  • eBPF – Add MIPS support along with many supporting change to add the required infrastructure
  • Generic arch code:
    • Misc sysmips MIPS_ATOMIC_SET fixes
    • Drop duplicate HAVE_SYSCALL_TRACEPOINTS
    • Negate error syscall return in trace
    • Correct forced syscall errors
    • Traced negative syscalls should return -ENOSYS
    • Allow samples/bpf/tracex5 to access syscall arguments for sane
      traces
    • Cleanup from old Kconfig options in defconfigs
    • Fix PREF instruction usage by memcpy for MIPS R6
    • Fix various special cases in the FPU eulation
    • Fix some special cases in MIPS16e2 support
    • Fix MIPS I ISA /proc/cpuinfo reporting
    • Sort MIPS Kconfig alphabetically
    • Fix minimum alignment requirement of IRQ stack as required by ABI / GCC
    • Fix special cases in the module loader
    • Perform post-DMA cache flushes on systems with MAARs
    • Probe the I6500 CPU
    • Cleanup cmpxchg and add support for 1 and 2 byte operations
    • Use queued read/write locks (qrwlock)
    • Use queued spinlocks (qspinlock)
    • Add CPU shared FTLB feature detection
    • Handle tlbex-tlbp race condition
    • Allow storing pgd in C0_CONTEXT for MIPSr6
    • Use current_cpu_type() in m4kc_tlbp_war()
    • Support Boston in the generic kernel
  • Generic platform:
    • yamon-dt: Pull YAMON DT shim code out of SEAD-3 board;  Support > 256MB of RAM;  Use serial* rather than uart* aliases
    • Abstract FDT fixup application
    • Set RTC_ALWAYS_BCD to 0
    • Add a MAINTAINERS entry
  • core kernel – qspinlock.c: include linux/prefetch.h
  • Add support for Loongson 3
  • Perf – Add I6500 support
  • SEAD-3 – Remove GIC timer from DT; set interrupt-parent per-device, not at root node; fix GIC interrupt specifiers
  • SMP – Skip IPI setup if we only have a single CPU
  • VDSO – Make comment match reality; improvements to time code in VDSO”
  • Various fixes:
    • compressed boot: Ignore a generated .c file
    • VDSO: Fix a register clobber list
    • DECstation: Fix an int-handler.S CPU_DADDI_WORKAROUNDS regression
    • Octeon: Fix recent cleanups that cleaned away a bit too much thus breaking the arch side of the EDAC and USB drivers.
    • uasm: Fix duplicate const in “const struct foo const bar[]” which GCC 7.1 no longer accepts.
    • Fix race on setting and getting cpu_online_mask
    • Fix preemption issue. To do so cleanly introduce macro to get the size of L3 cache line.
    • Revert include cleanup that sometimes results in build error
    • MicroMIPS uses bit 0 of the PC to indicate microMIPS mode. Make sure this bit is set for kernel entry as well.
    • Prevent configuring the kernel for both microMIPS and MT. There are no such CPUs currently and thus the combination is unsupported and results in build errors.
    • ralink: mt7620: Add missing header

You can read the full Linux 4.13 changelog – with comments only – generated using git log v4.12..v4.13 --stat for the full details, and eventually kernelnewsbies’s Linux 4.13 changelog will be updated with an extensive list of chances.

Fedora 26 Supports Single “Unified” OS Images for Multiple ARM Platforms

August 14th, 2017 29 comments

The decision to use device tree in Linux occurred several years ago, after Linus Torvalds complained that Linux on ARM was a mess, with the ultimate goal of providing a unified ARM kernel for all hardware. Most machine specific board files in arch/arm/mach-xxx/ are now gone from the Linux kernel, being replaced by device tree files, and in many case you simply need to replace the DTB (Device Tree Binary) file from an operating system to run on different hardware platforms. However, this is not always that easy as U-boot still often differ between boards / devices, so it’s quite frequent to distribute different firmware / OS images per board. Fedora has taken another approach, as the developers are instead distributing a single Fedora 26 OS ARMv7 image, together with an installation script.

Images for 64-bit ARM (Aarch64) are a little different since they are designed for SBSA compliant servers, so a single image will work on any server leveraging UEFI / ACPI implementation on the hardware. So what follows is specific to ARMv7 hard-float images as explained in the Wiki.

You’ll need to install Fedora Arm installer after downloading one of the Fedora 26 images. This requires an Fedora machine, and since I’m running Ubuntu 16.04, and don’t want to setup a Fedora virtual machine in Virtualbox, I used docker instead right inside Ubuntu as it’s much faster to do:

The last line requires some explanation. /media/hdd is the mount point of the storage device on the host where I download the Fedora image and that will be accessible through /mnt in docker, /dev/sdd is my micro SD card device, while /dev/sdd3 will be the rootfs partition.Note that it took me a while to get that right, and I’m not sure it works for all targets (other other /dev/sddx are also needed), so using an actual Fedora 26 installation would be easier. The rest of the instructions below are not specific to docker.

I could then install the Fedora ARM Installer and the required xz & file packages…

…and check the usage:

Let’s see how many boards are supported in /usr/share/doc/fedora-arm-installer/SUPPORTED-BOARDS file:

AllWinner Devices:
A10-OLinuXino-Lime A10s-OLinuXino-M A13-OLinuXino A13-OLinuXinoM
A20-OLinuXino-Lime A20-OLinuXino-Lime2 A20-OLinuXino_MICRO
A20-Olimex-SOM-EVB Ampe_A76 Auxtek-T003 Auxtek-T004 Bananapi Bananapro CHIP
CSQ_CS908 Chuwi_V7_CW0825 Colombus Cubieboard Cubieboard2 Cubietruck
Cubietruck_plus Hummingbird_A31 Hyundai_A7HD Itead_Ibox_A20 Lamobo_R1
Linksprite_pcDuino Linksprite_pcDuino3 Linksprite_pcDuino3_Nano MK808C
MSI_Primo73 MSI_Primo81 Marsboard_A10 Mele_A1000 Mele_A1000G_quad Mele_I7
Mele_M3 Mele_M5 Mele_M9 Mini-X Orangepi Orangepi_mini Sinlinx_SinA31s
UTOO_P66 Wexler_TAB7200 Wits_Pro_A20_DKT Yones_Toptech_BS1078_V2 ba10_tv_box
colorfly_e708_q1 difrnce_dit4350 dserve_dsrv9703c i12-tvbox iNet_86VS
icnova-a20-swac inet86dz jesurun_q5 mk802 mk802_a10s mk802ii orangepi_2
orangepi_lite orangepi_pc orangepi_plus polaroid_mid2809pxe04
pov_protab2_ips9 q8_a13_tablet q8_a23_tablet_800x480 q8_a33_tablet_1024x600
q8_a33_tablet_800x480 r7-tv-dongle sunxi_Gemei_G9

MX6 Devices:
cm_fx6 mx6cuboxi novena riotboard wandboard

OMAP Devices:
am335x_boneblack am57xx_evm kc1 omap3_beagle omap4_panda omap5_uevm

MVEBU Devices:
clearfog

ST Devices:
stih410-b2260

Other Devices:
jetson-tk1 rpi2 rpi3 trimslice

So we’ve got a list of device to choose from. For example, if you wanted to install Fedora 26 server in a micro SD card for Raspberry Pi 3, you’d run something like:

You’ll then be ask to confirm:

The full process will take several minutes, and at the end you’ll get “_/” rootfs partition, “_/boot ” partition, and a “30 MB volume” with u-boot, config,etc…


I did not try the micro SD card in Raspberry Pi 3 board myself, because Geek Till It Hertz has already done it successfully on both RPi 3 and Banana Pi boards as shown in the video below.

He also showed the boards run Linux 4.11.8 version, but that can be upgraded with dnf update to Linux 4.11.11, just as on his Fedora 26 installation on a x86-64  computer.

Banana Pi BPI-R2’s U-boot & Linux 4.4 Source Code & MediaTek MT7623N Datasheet Released

June 28th, 2017 39 comments

Banana Pi BPI-R2 is a multimedia router board powered by MediaTek MT7623N quad core processor with 2GB RAM, 5 Gigabit Ethernet ports, up to two SATA ports, two USB 3.0 ports, HDMI output, and I/O headers. The board is not for sale yet, but the company has recently released the source code with U-boot and Linux 4.4.70, as well as a datasheet for MediaTek MT7623N processor.

The source code can be found on Github, so let’s see if we can build it:

After a couple of minutes, the build would end with:

For the very last step, it asks you to login as root / sudoer, which it should not do… But we end up with the images, so at least it builds:

MediaTek has also been active by committing patchsets for MT7623 to the Linux Kernel Mailing List, so mainline Linux is an eventual possibility for BPI-R2 board. We just don’t have a clear view of what works and what doesn’t with mainline.

Mediatek MT7623N PCIe Subsystem Block Diagram

The datasheet is a 1,235-page document, but the name “MT7623N Datasheet for Development Board” implies that it may actually be a subset of another larger and more complete datasheet. Nevertheless, it looks to have enough information to control peripherals like GPIOs, I2C, PWM, UART, timers, GMAC, USB, etc… You’ll also find BPI-R2 schematics (PDF only) in the board’s Wiki.