How to Flash Rockchip RK3066 / RK3188 Firmware in Linux

Rockchip provides 2 tools to update the flash:

  • RkBatchTool – Used to upgrade firmware with a single file
  • RkAndroidTool – Used to flash the NAND flash with image corresponding to particular partition, e.g. system.img. kernel.img, boot.img. recovery.img. etc…

One problem is that the company only provides these tools for Windows, so if you’re using a Linux based operating systems, you’d have to run a Windows XP or 7 virtual machine in VirtualBox or VMWare, which is an inconvenience, and requires a license in theory. To work around this issue, I’ve tried to use ReactOS, an open source operating systems compatible with Windows XP, but although the USB drivers appeared to install properly, RKAndroidTool failed to recognized my device (MK908). But a member of Mini PCs community informed me about a tool called RkFlashKit, written in Python and using GTK, that can flash firmware to Rockchip RK3066 and RK3188 devices in Linux, so I’ve given it a try.

Installing RkFlashKit

In order to install RkFlashKit in Debian or Ubuntu, you need to get the source code, build it, and install the package:

In Ubuntu, you can just go to the dash to find rkflashkit, and run it (You’ll need to be sudo).

Flashing firmware with RkFlashKit

The tool is similar to RkAndroidTool as it can burn partition images to specific partitions. You’ll need to enter recovery mode just like you would do in Windows, by pressing the recovery button, before powering the device via the USB port, and connect the USB cable to your PC. RkFlashKit should automatically find your device, so you just have to select the correct NAND partition, select the image file to flash, and click on Flash image.

RkFlashKit Flashing System.img to MK908 NAND Flash
RkFlashKit Flashing System.img to MK908 NAND Flash

This is very easy to use thanks to the user interface. However, it currently lacks support for the parameter file, as well as Rockchip Loader, which means it will not work if those two files are changes, and you may brick your device if the partition table has changed for example. It’s normally possible to recover with RKAndroidTool if your device is bricked, so you may still want to have a Windows device or Virtual Machine ready in case something does wrong.

Flash RKBatchTool Firmware File with RkFlashKit

Another problem is that firmware updates are often distributed using RKBatchTool file format, which can not be directly handled by RkFlashKit. Luckily, there are some other tools available to extract the partitions file from such firmware. I used one of the latest MK908 firmware (update_mk908_106j2107_04.img) to try it out.

You’ll first need to build rk-tools:

Then use img_unpack tools to unpack the firmware to another format:

Finally, run afptool to extract the files from the resulting file into “firmware” directory:

Now that we’ve got our partition files, simply use RkFlashKit as mentioned above.

Unbrick Your Rockchip Device with RKAndroidTool

Since the steps above may fail, I’ll just quickly mention a method that should unbrick the device in Windows with RKAndroidTool.

  1. Download RKAndroidTool, and extract the file. Installing 7-Zip may be required to uncompress the file.
  2. Installed the USB drivers for Windows
  3. Run RKAndroidTool.exe in RkAndroidToolv1.37 directory
  4. Connect you device USB OTG port to your PC USB port, and enter recovery mode.
  5. Load all the available files, and make sure they are ticked on the left
  6. Click on “Erase IDB”, then “Run” to complete the recovery


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12 Replies to “How to Flash Rockchip RK3066 / RK3188 Firmware in Linux”

  1. Hello Sir,

    I think you have a typo. The third line under “Installing RkFlashKit” is actually:

    ./waf debian

    Thank you so much for all your great posts, I’ve learned a lot from here.

  2. Hi. Am I understood correctly that I can install Ubuntu on a tablet that runs on the RockChip RK3066 processor?

    1. Yes, it’s possible. But it’s not necessarily easy, and things like touchscreen may not work.
      If something goes wrong you may also brick your tablet. If you boot the OS from microSD card it should be safe to try though.

      You can search for picuntu tablet to see some demos. Note that RK3066 is fairly old, so the image you may find are likely based on Ubuntu 12.04 or 14.04.

  3. Hi,

    thanks for this article. In your article there is a link to Google+ page but I think Google+ is down. Is it possible to somehow get the information from that post? I’d like to know how you managed to install the drivers in ReactOS and what else worked there. Thanks.

    1. I can still access G+ since I have a company account, instead of an individual account.
      It reads:

      I’ve tried using RkAndroidTool 1.37 in ReactOS ( instead of Windows, but I did not manage to make it work.

      I used VirtualBox image to run ReactOS in Ubuntu 12.04.

      The OS is alpha and not so stable, so the first thing I did was to find a web browser that does not crash during Launch, Opera 9.64 did the job. Then I could download RkAndroidTool, some firmware files, and 7-Zip utility to uncompress firmware.

      RockUSB driver appears to install properly after I connected MK908 in recovery mode, and I could see “Rockusb device” in the Device Manager, but the device could not be detected by RKAndroidTool with the message “No Found RKAndroid rock usb”.

      I’ll try a bit more, but I’m not confident I’ll get a positive result.

      Edit: Replaced RKBatchTool with RKAndroidTool, since this is what i used.

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